A variety of microbes live on the teeth and in the mouth. Image: NIDCRFour Univ. of Washington (UW) School of Dentistry faculty members have received a patent for a new way of using titanium-based materials to fight oral bacteria.

The patent culminates several years of work in which the group studied a novel class of substances called titanates and peroxotitanates, which can inhibit bacterial growth when bound to metal ions. These titanates could be incorporated into a gel or a solution that would be applied by a dentist after a procedure such as a root canal or a filling. The application could reduce the chances of infection or tooth decay at that site.

Titanates could also be used in bandages, skin gels, mouthwashes and toothpaste to limit bacterial growth, said Whasun Oh Chung, research assoc. prof. of oral health science, who works on this new antibacterial agent. The others are Daniel Chan and John Wataha, both profs.  of restorative dentistry; and Bruce Rutherford, lecturer in oral biology.

The group’s work grew out of nearly a decade of research performed by Wataha and David Hobbs of South Carolina’s Savannah River National Laboratory. Hobbs is also listed on the patent as an inventor. Their studies formed the basis for a four-year, $1.5 million federal grant by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research to the UW School of Dentistry to evaluate titanates’ antibacterial properties.

Chan was co-principal investigator on the grant with James Bryers of the UW Dept. of Biomedical Engineering. 

Metals have long been known to have antibacterial properties, said Whasun Oh Chung, but, when used in concentrations high enough to be effective, they also carry a risk of toxic side effects. What makes the work with titanates promising, she said, is that the therapeutic benefits are achieved with less risk of toxicity.

“It is very new and novel,” said Chung. “Nothing has delivered materials at such a non-toxic level. We’re working with something we know is effective. Metals have been around a long time, and the bacteria haven’t become resistant to them.”

That is also an important consideration at a time when growing bacterial resistance to antibiotics places greater urgency on the need to find antimicrobial alternatives, she noted.

“The use of metal ions to control bacterial infections remains of interest as drug-resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly common and dangerous to human health,” Chung said.

Aside from their uses in the mouth or other topical applications, titanates could even be used in narrowly targeted treatments for internal organs, she said.

Titanates could also be used in dental or medical materials and devices, she said, including suture material, catheters, shunts and dental fillings. They could even show up in toothpastes and mouthwashes someday, she said.

“[Titanate-metal complexes have] proven to be effective against endodontic, cariogenic and periodontic bacteria,” Chung said. “The idea is to make it easy for people to use every day.” At the same time, Wataha cautioned that the practical or clinical benefits have yet to be conclusively demonstrated for the new patent-related application.

The researchers are now conducting human trials and expect to finish this spring, Chung said. However, she declined to predict when titanates might be approved for general use.

Source: Univ. of Washington