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EPA proposes changes to emission rules

May 16, 2014 10:56 am | by Associated Press | News | Comments

The EPA has announced a proposal to reduce oil refinery pollution that, if adopted, would mark the first change to the industry's emission standards in nearly two decades. The move is part of a consent decree that resolved a lawsuit filed by nonprofit environmental attorneys with Earthjustice and the Environmental Integrity Project on behalf of people directly affected by emissions from refineries in Louisiana, Texas and California.

Electrons hurtle into the interior of a new class of quantum materials

May 16, 2014 9:55 am | by Catherine Zandonella, Office of the Dean for Research | News | Comments

As smartphones get smarter and computers compute faster, researchers actively search for ways to speed up the processing of information. Now, scientists at Princeton Univ. have made a step forward in developing a new class of materials that could be used in future technologies.

Fighting Ebola virus disease: Transformer protein provides new insights

May 16, 2014 8:25 am | by Manuel Gnida, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory | News | Comments

A new study reveals that a protein of the Ebola virus can transform into three distinct shapes, each with a separate function that is critical to the virus’s survival. Each shape offers a potential target for developing drugs against Ebola virus disease, a hemorrhagic fever that kills up to nine out of 10 infected patients in outbreaks such as the current one in West Africa.

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Tricking the uncertainty principle

May 16, 2014 8:11 am | by Jessica Stoller-Conrad, Caltech | News | Comments

Caltech researchers have found a way to make measurements that go beyond the limits imposed by quantum physics. Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure.

Roadmap shows how to improve lignocellulosic biofuel biorefining

May 16, 2014 8:00 am | by Brett Israel, Georgia Institute of Technology | News | Comments

When making cellulosic ethanol from plants, one problem is what to do with a woody agricultural waste product called lignin. The old adage in the pulp industry has been that one can make anything from lignin except money. A new review article in Science points the way toward a future where lignin is transformed from a waste product into valuable materials such as low-cost carbon fiber for cars or bio-based plastics.

Glasses-free 3-D projector

May 16, 2014 7:49 am | by Larry Hardesty, MIT News Office | Videos | Comments

Over the past three years, researchers in the Camera Culture group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab have steadily refined a design for a glasses-free, multi-perspective, 3-D video screen, which they hope could provide a cheaper, more practical alternative to holographic video in the short term.

Giant telescope tackles orbit, size of exoplanet

May 15, 2014 11:45 am | by Anne M. Stark, Lawrence Livermore National Laboraotry | News | Comments

Using one of the world's largest telescopes, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory team and international collaborators have tracked the orbit of a planet at least four times the size of Jupiter. The scientists were able to identify the orbit of the exoplanet, Beta Pictoris b, which sits 63 light-years from our solar system, by using the Gemini Planet Imager's next-generation, high-contrast adaptive optics system.

System prints precise drug dosages tailored for patients

May 15, 2014 11:36 am | by Emil Venere, Purdue Univ. | News | Comments

Researchers have created a prototype system that uses a mathematical model to predict—and a portable inkjet technology to produce—precise medication dosages tailored for specific patients, an advance in personalized medicine that could improve drug effectiveness and reduce adverse reactions.

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The brain: Key to a better computer

May 15, 2014 8:03 am | by Sue Holmes, Sandia National Laboratories | News | Comments

Your brain is incredibly well suited to handling whatever comes along, plus it’s tough and operates on little energy. Those attributes—dealing with real-world situations, resiliency and energy efficiency—are precisely what might be possible with neuro-inspired computing.

Researchers discover rare form of iron oxide in ancient pottery

May 15, 2014 7:52 am | by Kate Greene, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

New analysis of ancient Jian wares reveals the distinctive pottery contains an unexpected and highly unusual form of iron oxide. This rare compound, called epsilon-phase iron oxide, was only recently discovered and characterized by scientists and so far has been extremely difficult to create with modern techniques.

High-flying turbine produces more power

May 15, 2014 7:40 am | by Rob Matheson, MIT News Office | News | Comments

For Altaeros Energies, a startup launched out of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the sky’s the limit when it comes to wind power. Founded by alumni Ben Glass and Adam Rein, Altaeros has developed the world’s first commercial airborne wind turbine, which uses a helium-filled shell to float as high as a skyscraper and capture the stronger, steadier winds available at that altitude.

A new approach to treating peanut, food allergies

May 14, 2014 11:22 am | News | Comments

These days, more and more people seem to have food allergies, which can sometimes have life-threatening consequences. In the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, scientists report the development of a new type of flour that someday could be used in food-based therapies to help people better tolerate their allergy triggers, including peanuts.

The Bright Side of Fluorescence

May 14, 2014 8:49 am | by Takeharu Nagai, PhD, Osaka Univ., Japan | Photometrics | Articles | Comments

Fluorescent proteins have helped researchers open doors to countless molecular imaging applications and deepened our understanding of biological processes. Without fluorescence, advancements in oncology, drug discovery and any field that requires single-cell to whole-body imaging would be substantially limited.

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Chemists design molecules for controlling bacterial behavior

May 14, 2014 8:29 am | by Rob Enslin, Syracuse Univ. | News | Comments

Chemists in the College of Arts and Sciences at Syracuse Univ. have figured out how to control multiple bacterial behaviors—potentially good news for the treatment of infectious diseases and other bacteria-associated issues, without causing drug resistance.

Implanted devices may reshape medicine

May 14, 2014 8:19 am | Videos | Comments

Researchers from The Univ. of Texas at Dallas and the Univ. of Tokyo have created electronic devices that become soft when implanted inside the body and can deploy to grip 3-D objects, such as large tissues, nerves and blood vessels. These biologically adaptive, flexible transistors might one day help doctors learn more about what is happening inside the body, and stimulate the body for treatments.

Insight on HIV lifecycle gained through creative use of high-energy x-rays

May 14, 2014 7:59 am | by Tona Kunz, Argonne National Laboratory | News | Comments

A key step in the decades-long mystery of the HIV lifecycle was uncovered using what formerly was thought of as only a supplementary x-ray technique for structural biology. This advances study of HIV as well as highlights a powerful tool to obtain currently unobtainable high-resolution structural determination and characterization of RNA molecules.

Technique enables air-stable water droplet networks

May 14, 2014 7:48 am | by Morgan McCorkle, Oak Ridge National Laboratory | News | Comments

A simple new technique to form interlocking beads of water in ambient conditions could prove valuable for applications in biological sensing, membrane research and harvesting water from fog. Researchers have developed a method to create air-stable water droplet networks known as droplet interface bilayers. These interconnected water droplets have many roles in biological research because their interfaces simulate cell membranes.

High-tech peg measures palsy patients’ dexterity

May 14, 2014 7:31 am | Videos | Comments

It looks like a game board and many of its users will find it fun, but there’s serious intent behind a device by Rice Univ. students to test the abilities of cerebral palsy patients. At the heart of the DeXcellence platform is a small peg comfortable enough for a three-year-old to hold. But packed inside are enough electronics to tell a nearby computer, tablet or other Bluetooth-enabled device of how the cylinder is moving in space.

Genetic material hitchhiking in cells may shape physical traits

May 13, 2014 11:57 am | by Larry Hardesty, MIT News Office | News | Comments

In 2003, when the human genome had been sequenced, many people expected a welter of new therapies to follow, as biologists identified the genes associated with particular diseases. But the process that translates genes into proteins turned out to be much more involved than anticipated. Other elements also regulate protein production, complicating the relationship between an organism’s genetic blueprint and its physical characteristics.

Diamond planets may be more common than astronomers thought

May 13, 2014 11:46 am | by Eric Gershon, Yale Univ. | News | Comments

Carbon-rich planets may be more common than previously thought, according to new research by Yale Univ. astronomers. Some of these planets, all located far beyond Earth’s solar system, could contain vast deposits of graphite or diamonds, and their apparent abundance prompts new questions about the implications of carbon-intense environments for climate, plate tectonics and other geological processes, as well as for life.

Study finds surprising clues about the formation of sun-like star clusters

May 9, 2014 11:15 am | News | Comments

An important advance in understanding how clusters of stars like our sun are formed has been made by a team that includes seven astronomers at Penn State Univ. and two at other universities. Using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and infrared telescopes, the astronomers have shown that earlier theories about the process that creates star clusters in giant clouds of gas and dust cannot be correct.

Regenerating plastic grows back after damage

May 9, 2014 8:08 am | by Liz Ahlberg, Physical Sciences Editor, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | News | Comments

Looking at a smooth sheet of plastic in one Univ. of Illinois laboratory, no one would guess that an impact had recently blasted a hole through it. Illinois researchers have developed materials that not only heal, but regenerate. Until now, self-repairing materials could only bond tiny microscopic cracks. The new regenerating materials fill in large cracks and holes by regrowing material.

Chemotherapy timing is key to success

May 8, 2014 4:00 pm | by Anne Trafton, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers have devised a novel cancer treatment that destroys tumor cells by first disarming their defenses, then hitting them with a lethal dose of DNA damage. In studies with mice, the research team showed that this one-two punch, which relies on a nanoparticle that carries two drugs and releases them at different times, dramatically shrinks lung and breast tumors.

Small mutation changes brain freeze to hot foot

May 8, 2014 3:50 pm | News | Comments

Ice cream lovers and hot tea drinkers with sensitive teeth could one day have a reason to celebrate a new finding from Duke Univ. researchers. The scientists have found a very small change in a single protein that turns a cold-sensitive receptor into one that senses heat.

Health insurers just say no to marijuana coverage

May 8, 2014 10:27 am | by Tom Murphy - AP Business Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

Patients who use medical marijuana for pain and other chronic symptoms can take an unwanted hit: Insurers don't cover the treatment, which costs as much as $1,000 a month. Once the drug of choice for hippies and rebellious teens, marijuana in recent years has gained more mainstream acceptance for its ability to boost appetite, dull pain and reduce seizures in everyone from epilepsy to cancer patients.

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