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Nanotracer tester tells about wells

February 24, 2014 7:55 am | News | Comments

A tabletop device invented at Rice Univ. can tell how efficiently a nanoparticle would travel through a well and may provide a wealth of information for oil and gas producers. The device gathers data on how tracers, microscopic particles that can be pumped into and recovered from wells, move through deep rock formations that have been opened by hydraulic fracturing.

Using viruses as nanoscale building blocks

February 21, 2014 11:28 am | by Mona S. Rowe, Brookhaven National Laboratory | News | Comments

From steel beams to plastic Lego bricks, building blocks come in many materials and all sizes. Today, science has opened the way to manufacturing at the nanoscale with biological materials. Potential applications range from medicine to optoelectronic devices. In a paper published in Soft Matter, scientists announced their discovery of a 2-D crystalline structure assembled from the outer shells of a virus.

Sun powers complex cancer test for remote regions

February 21, 2014 8:19 am | by Blaine Friedlander, Cornell Univ. | News | Comments

From the sun, a solution: Cornell Univ. and Weill Cornell Medical College researchers have remodeled an energy-intensive medical test, designed to detect a deadly skin cancer related to HIV infections, to create a quick diagnostic assay perfect for remote regions of the world. By harnessing the sun’s power and employing a smartphone application, medical technicians may now handily administer reliable assays for Kaposi’s sarcoma.

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A changing view of bone marrow cells

February 21, 2014 7:55 am | by Kimm Fesenmaier, Caltech | News | Comments

In the battle against infection, immune cells are the body's offense and defense. It has long been known that a population of blood stem cells that resides in the bone marrow generates all of these immune cells. But most scientists have believed that blood stem cells participate in battles against infection in a delayed way, replenishing immune cells on the front line only after they become depleted.

Nanopillars could improve conversion of heat to electricity

February 21, 2014 7:36 am | News | Comments

Univ. of Colorado Boulder scientists have found a creative way to radically improve thermoelectric materials, a finding that could one day lead to the development of improved solar panels and more energy-efficient cooling equipment. The technique, building an array of tiny pillars on top of a sheet of thermoelectric material, represents an entirely new way of attacking a century-old problem.

NIST atomtronic study may pave the way for new devices

February 20, 2014 9:04 am | News | Comments

While pursuing the goal of turning a cloud of ultracold atoms into a completely new kind of circuit element, physicists at NIST have demonstrated that such a cloud, known as a Bose-Einstein condensate, can display a sort of "memory." The findings pave the way for a host of novel devices based on "atomtronics," an emerging field that offers an alternative to conventional electronics.

A new laser for a faster Internet

February 20, 2014 8:16 am | by Jessica Stoller-Conrad, Caltech | News | Comments

A new laser developed by a research group at Caltech holds the potential to increase by orders of magnitude the rate of data transmission in the optical-fiber network: the backbone of the Internet. The high-coherence new laser converts current to light using III-V material, but in a fundamental departure from S-DFB lasers, it stores the light in a layer of silicon, which does not absorb light.

Closing the “free will” loophole

February 20, 2014 8:01 am | by Jennifer Chu, MIT News Office | News | Comments

In a recently published paper, researchers proposed an experiment that may close the last major loophole of Bell’s inequality, a 50-year-old theorem that, if violated by experiments, would mean that our universe is based not on the textbook laws of classical physics, but on the less-tangible probabilities of quantum mechanics. Such a quantum view would allow for seemingly counterintuitive phenomena such as entanglement.

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Microscopy system delivers real-time view of battery electrochemistry

February 19, 2014 3:17 pm | News | Comments

Using a new microscopy method, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) can image and measure electrochemical processes in batteries in real time and at nanoscale resolution. Scientists at ORNL used a miniature electrochemical liquid cell that is placed in a transmission electron microscope to study an enigmatic phenomenon in lithium-ion batteries called the solid electrolyte interphase.

Using holograms to improve electronic devices

February 19, 2014 3:02 pm | by Sean Nealon, Univ. of California, Riverside | News | Comments

A team of researchers has demonstrated a new type of holographic memory device that could provide unprecedented data storage capacity and data processing capabilities in electronic devices. The new type of memory device uses spin waves, a collective oscillation of spins in magnetic materials, instead of the optical beams.

Report: Federal support enabled 22 major technology advances

February 19, 2014 9:52 am | by Information Technology and Innovation Foundation | News | Comments

A new report examines 22 cases of successful U.S. innovation in which the development of key foundational technologies stemmed at least in part from federal investment in research and development (R&D). The cases cover technologies developed across a wide range of fields over the past half century, from information and communications technology, energy and health care to transportation, agriculture and mathematics.

Report: Offshoring, outsourcing a mixed bag for American jobs, wages

February 19, 2014 9:41 am | by Kathleen Maclay, Media Relations, Univ. of California, Berkeley | News | Comments

A new study by Univ. of California, Berkeley and Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers finds that the practices of outsourcing and offshoring jobs appear to have both positive and negative effects on American jobs and wages. The pilot study provides the first representative and internationally comparable evidence of the domestic and international sourcing practices of U.S. private and public sector organizations.

An essential step toward printing living tissues

February 19, 2014 9:29 am | News | Comments

A new bioprinting method developed at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard Univ. creates intricately patterned 3-D tissue constructs with multiple types of cells and tiny blood vessels. The work represents a major step toward a longstanding goal of tissue engineers: creating human tissue constructs realistic enough to test drug safety and effectiveness.

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Solar-induced hybrid fuel cell produces electricity directly from biomass

February 19, 2014 7:45 am | by John Toon, Georgia Institute of Technology | News | Comments

Although low-temperature fuel cells powered by methanol or hydrogen have been well studied, existing low-temperature fuel cell technologies can’t directly use biomass as a fuel because of the lack of an effective catalyst system for polymeric materials. Now, researchers have developed a new type of low-temperature fuel cell that directly converts biomass to electricity with assistance from a catalyst activated by solar or thermal energy.

Smarter caching

February 19, 2014 7:32 am | by Larry Hardesty, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Computer chips keep getting faster because transistors keep getting smaller. But the chips themselves are as big as ever, so data moving around the chip, and between chips and main memory, has to travel just as far. As transistors get faster, the cost of moving data becomes, proportionally, a more severe limitation. So far, chip designers have circumvented that limitation through the use of “caches”.

How Laboratory Space is Changing

February 18, 2014 1:49 pm | by Bill Harris, Principal, Regional Practice Leader for Science and Technology, Perkins+Will | Articles | Comments

A generation ago, wet laboratory space would’ve included fixed casework, dense with laboratory benches, storage cabinets and equipment, but hardly any space or capacity to hold a meeting or accommodate change. Today, laboratory space design reflects an evolution in both the methods of research and the way that scientists work—individually and with their colleagues. 

Artificial leaf jumps developmental hurdle

February 18, 2014 11:00 am | News | Comments

In a recent early online edition of Nature Chemistry, Arizona State Univ. scientists, along with colleagues at Argonne National Laboratory, have reported advances toward perfecting a functional artificial leaf. Designing an artificial leaf that uses solar energy to convert water cheaply and efficiently into hydrogen and oxygen is one of the goals of BISfuel.

A battery small enough to be injected, energetic enough to track salmon

February 18, 2014 8:36 am | News | Comments

Scientists have created a microbattery that packs twice the energy compared to current microbatteries used to monitor the movements of salmon through rivers in the Pacific Northwest and around the world. The battery, a cylinder just slightly larger than a long grain of rice, is certainly not the world's smallest battery, as engineers have created batteries far tinier than the width of a human hair. 

Test could predict which teen boys get depression

February 18, 2014 8:09 am | by Maria Cheng - AP Medical Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

A saliva test for teenage boys with mild symptoms of depression could help identify those who will later develop major depression, a new study says. Researchers measured the stress hormone cortisol in teenage boys and found that ones with high levels coupled with mild depression symptoms were up to 14 times more likely to suffer clinical depression later in life than those with low or normal cortisol levels.

Hitchhiking vaccines boost immunity

February 18, 2014 8:04 am | by Anne Trafton, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Many vaccines consist of a killed or disabled version of a virus. However, for certain diseases, this type of vaccine is ineffective, or just too risky. An alternative, safer approach is a vaccine made of small fragments of proteins produced by a disease-causing virus or bacterium. This has worked for some diseases, but in many cases these vaccines don’t provoke a strong enough response. Until now.

Study: America's natural gas system is leaky and in need of a fix

February 14, 2014 8:05 am | by Mark Golden, Stanford Univ. | News | Comments

The first thorough comparison of evidence for natural gas system leaks confirms that organizations including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have underestimated U.S. methane emissions generally, as well as those from the natural gas industry specifically.

Research reveals structure of key protein complex

February 13, 2014 1:04 pm | by Veronica Meade-Kelly, Broad Institute | News | Comments

Researchers have formed the first high-definition picture of the Cas9 complex, a key part of the CRISPR-Cas system used by scientists as a genome-editing tool to silence genes and probe the biology of cells. Their findingsare expected to help researchers refine and further engineer the tool to accelerate genomic research and bring the technology closer to use in the treatment of human genetic disease.

NIF experiments show initial gain in fusion fuel

February 12, 2014 1:28 pm | by Breanna Bishop, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | News | Comments

Ignition has long been considered the "holy grail" of inertial confinement fusion science. A key step along the path to ignition is to have "fuel gains" greater than unity, where the energy generated through fusion reactions exceeds the amount of energy deposited into the fusion fuel. Though ignition remains the ultimate goal, the milestone of achieving fuel gains greater than one has been reached for the first time ever on any facility.

Technology decodes more information from single photons

February 12, 2014 1:02 pm | News | Comments

It's not quite Star Trek communications—yet. But long-distance communications in space may be easier now that researchers have designed a clever detector array that can extract more information than usual from single particles of light. Described in a new paper, the NIST/JPL array-on-a-chip easily identifies the position of the exact detector in a multi-detector system that absorbs an incoming infrared light particle, or photon.

Report compiles quantitative information on S&E

February 12, 2014 12:00 pm | by National Science Foundation | News | Comments

Science and Engineering Indicators (SEI) is first and foremost a volume of record comprising the major high-quality quantitative data on the U.S. and international science and engineering enterprise. SEI is factual and policy neutral. It doesn’t offer policy options, and it doesn’t make policy recommendations.

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