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Safety Is Key When Planning for U.S. High-speed Rail Lines

June 4, 2014 11:46 am | by Xavier Fornari, Product Marketing Manager, ANSYS, Elancourt, France | Articles | Comments

High-speed rail is a frequently discussed topic, but one that has yet to become a reality in the U.S. A number of states and regions in the U.S. including Texas, California, the Pacific Northwest and Minnesota, to name a few, have planned projects to bring high-speed rail to fruition.

Retaining Knowledge After an Engineer Leaves

June 4, 2014 11:31 am | by Paul Goossens, VP of Engineering Solutions, Maplesoft | Articles | Comments

If a senior engineer left an organization suddenly, how many hours would it take for the engineering team to take over his projects, confident that they understand not only the designs, but why those designs are the way they are? The typical answer is “far too many”. Widespread use of CAE and data management tools have made this task much easier than before, but these tools do little to record the thinking behind the results.

Rice produces carbon-capture breakthrough

June 4, 2014 7:47 am | Videos | Comments

Rice Univ. scientists have created an Earth-friendly way to separate carbon dioxide from natural gas at wellheads. A porous material invented by the Rice laboratory of chemist James Tour sequesters carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, at ambient temperature with pressure provided by the wellhead and lets it go once the pressure is released. The material shows promise to replace more costly and energy-intensive processes.

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Countdown to net zero

June 3, 2014 9:27 am | by Mark Bello, NIST | News | Comments

Heading into the final stretch of a year-long trial run, the experimental net-zero energy house at NIST in Gaithersburg, Md., must overcome an energy deficit of 154 kWhr—equivalent to about $20—during the month of June. The facility was designed to produce at least as much energy as it consumes over the course of a year.

Scientists find stronger 3-D material that behaves like graphene

June 3, 2014 8:17 am | by Glennda Chui, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory | News | Comments

Scientists have discovered a material that has the same extraordinary electronic properties as 2-D graphene, but in a sturdy 3-D form that should be much easier to shape into electronic devices such as very fast transistors, sensors and transparent electrodes. The material, cadmium arsenide, is being explored independently by three groups.

Prototype electrolyte sensor provides immediate read-outs

June 3, 2014 8:03 am | by Neal Singer, Sandia National Laboratories | News | Comments

Patients trying to navigate today’s complex medical system with its costly laboratory analyses might prefer a pain-free home diagnostic device, worn on the wrist, that can analyze, continuously record and immediately remedy low electrolyte levels. Runners, athletes in other strenuous sports and soldiers on long missions also might prefer immediate knowledge of their electrolytic states as an aid to improved performance.

Affordable precision printing for pros

June 3, 2014 7:38 am | by Rob Matheson, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Against the backdrop of today’s burgeoning 3-D printing landscape, with an ever-increasing number of machines popping up, MIT Media Lab spinout Formlabs has carved out a precise niche. Combining a highly accurate (but usually expensive) light-based printing technique with engineering ingenuity, the Formlabs team invented a high-resolution 3-D laser printer, called the Form 1, that’s viewed as an affordable option for professional users.

Scientists use DNA origami trick to create 2-D structures

June 2, 2014 10:23 am | News | Comments

Scientists at New York Univ. and the Univ. of Melbourne have developed a method using DNA origami to turn 1-D nanomaterials into two dimensions. Their breakthrough, published in Nature Nanotechnology, offers the potential to enhance fiber optics and electronic devices by reducing their size and increasing their speed.

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Neutrons, x-rays reveal structure of high-temperature liquid metal oxides

June 2, 2014 8:16 am | by Katie Bethea, Oak Ridge National Laboratory | News | Comments

By levitating a bead of ceramic oxide, heating it with a 400-W carbon dioxide laser, then shooting the molten material with x-rays and neutrons, scientists with Oak Ridge and Argonne national laboratories have revealed unprecedented detail of the structure of high-temperature liquid oxides.

“Quadrapeutics” works in preclinical study of hard-to-treat tumors

June 2, 2014 7:52 am | Videos | Comments

The first preclinical study of a new Rice Univ.-developed anticancer technology found that a novel combination of existing clinical treatments can instantaneously detect and kill only cancer cells without harming surrounding normal organs. The research reports that Rice’s “quadrapeutics” technology was 17 times more efficient than conventional chemoradiation therapy against aggressive, drug-resistant head and neck tumors.

Surprising nanotubes: Some slippery, some sticky

June 2, 2014 7:39 am | by David L. Chandler, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Nanotubes have been the subject of intensive research, with potential uses ranging from solar cells to chemical sensors to reinforced composite materials. Most of the research has centered on carbon nanotubes, but other nanotubes’ properties appear to be similar. However, appearances can be deceiving, as researchers have found when examining one variant of nanotube made from boron nitride.

Think fast, robot

May 30, 2014 9:01 am | by Larry Hardesty, MIT News Office | News | Comments

One of the reasons we don’t yet have self-driving cars and miniature helicopters delivering online purchases is that autonomous vehicles tend not to perform well under pressure. A system that can flawlessly parallel park at 5 mph may have trouble avoiding obstacles at 35 mph. Part of the problem is the time it takes to produce and interpret camera data.

Unexpected water explains surface chemistry of nanocrystals

May 30, 2014 8:35 am | by Rachel Berkowitz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

A team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory found unexpected traces of water in semiconducting nanocrystals. The water as a source of small ions for the surface of colloidal lead sulfide nanoparticles allowed the team to explain just how the surface of these important particles are passivated, meaning how they achieve an overall balance of positive and negative ions.

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Engineering a better way to rebuild bone inside the body

May 30, 2014 8:05 am | by Brett Israel, Georgia Institute of Technology | News | Comments

Traumatic bone injuries are often so severe that the body can’t effectively repair the damage on its own. To aid the recovery, clinicians inject patients with growth factors. The treatment is costly, requiring large amounts of expensive growth factors. The growth factors also disperse, creating unwanted bone formation around the injury. A new technology could provide more efficient delivery of the bone regenerating growth factors.

Hitchhiking nanotubes show how cells stir themselves

May 30, 2014 7:50 am | Videos | Comments

A team of researchers has successfully tracked single molecules inside living cells with carbon nanotubes. Through this new method, the researchers found that cells stir their interiors using the same motor proteins that serve in muscle contraction. The study, which sheds new light on biological transport mechanisms in cells, appears in Science.

Bake your own robot

May 30, 2014 7:40 am | by Larry Hardesty, MIT News Office | Videos | Comments

At this year’s IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, a research team introduced a new wrinkle on the idea of printable robots: bakable robots. In two new papers, the researchers demonstrate the promise of printable robotic components that, when heated, automatically fold into prescribed 3-D configurations.

Researchers use light to coax stem cells to repair teeth

May 29, 2014 11:11 am | by Kristen Kusek, Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard Univ. | News | Comments

A Harvard Univ.-led team is the first to demonstrate the ability to use low-power light to trigger stem cells inside the body to regenerate tissue, an advance they reported in Science Translational Medicine. The research lays the foundation for a host of clinical applications in restorative dentistry and regenerative medicine more broadly, such as wound healing, bone regeneration and more.

Global survey: Climate change now a mainstream part of city planning

May 29, 2014 8:31 am | by Peter Dizikes, MIT News Office | News | Comments

An increasing number of cities around the world now include preparations for climate change in their basic urban planning; but only a small portion of them have been able to make such plans part of their economic development priorities, according to a unique global survey of cities. The Urban Climate Change Governance Survey underscores the extent to which city leaders recognize climate change as a major challenge.

Scientists pinpoint the creeping nanocrystals behind lithium-ion battery degradation

May 29, 2014 8:20 am | by Justin Eure, Brookhaven National Laboratory | News | Comments

Batteries don’t age gracefully. The lithium ions that power portable electronics cause lingering structural damage with each cycle of charge and discharge, making devices from smartphones to tablets tick toward zero faster and faster over time. To stop or slow this steady degradation, scientists must track and tweak the imperfect chemistry of lithium-ion batteries with nanoscale precision.

Microscopy charges ahead

May 29, 2014 8:05 am | by Jared Sagoff, Argonne National Laboratory | News | Comments

In order to see the true polarization of ferroelectric materials quickly and efficiently, researchers at Argonne National Laboratory have developed a new technique called charge gradient microscopy. Charge gradient microscopy uses the tip of a conventional atomic force microscope to scrape and collect the surface screen charges.

Miniature gas chromatograph could help farmers detect crop diseases earlier

May 29, 2014 7:55 am | by Angela Colar, Georgia Tech | News | Comments

Researchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute are developing a micro gas chromatograph for early detection of diseases in crops. About the size of a 9-V battery, the technology’s portability could give farmers just the tool they need to quickly evaluate the health of their crops and address any possible threats immediately, potentially increasing yield by reducing crop losses.

A path toward more powerful tabletop accelerators

May 29, 2014 7:39 am | by Kate Greene, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

Making a tabletop particle accelerator just got easier. A new study shows that certain requirements for the lasers used in an emerging type of small-area particle accelerator can be significantly relaxed. Researchers hope the finding could bring about a new era of accelerators that would need just a few meters to bring particles to great speeds, rather than the many kilometers required of traditional accelerators.

Researchers target brain circuitry to treat intractable mental disorders

May 28, 2014 11:46 am | by Sarah Yang, Media Relations, UC Berkeley | Videos | Comments

Neuroscientists, engineers and physicians are teaming up for an ambitious five-year, $26 million project to develop new techniques for tackling mental illness. By using devices implanted in the brain, they aim to target and correct malfunctioning neural circuits in conditions such as clinical depression, addiction and anxiety disorders.

Laser system mimics sunlight to test solar cell efficiency

May 28, 2014 10:34 am | News | Comments

Researchers at NIST have developed a laser-based instrument that generates artificial sunlight to help test solar cell properties and find ways to boost their efficiency. The novel NIST system simulates sunlight well across a broad spectrum of visible to infrared light. More flexible than conventional solar simulators, the laser instrument can be focused down to a small beam spot and shaped to match any desired spectral profile.

Sneaky bacteria change key protein’s shape to escape detection

May 28, 2014 10:23 am | News | Comments

Every once in a while in the U.S., bacterial meningitis seems to crop up out of nowhere, claiming a young life. Part of the disease’s danger is the ability of the bacteria to evade the body’s immune system, but scientists are now figuring out how the pathogen hides in plain sight. Their findings, which could help defeat these bacteria and others like it, appear in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

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