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Solving a case of intercellular entrapment

January 9, 2015 7:51 am | by Julie Cohen, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara | News | Comments

Optogenetics, which uses light to control cellular events, is poised to become an important technology in molecular biology and beyond. The Reich Group in Univ. of California, Santa Barbara’s Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry has made a major contribution to this emergent field by developing a light-activated nanocarrier that transports proteins into cells and releases them on command.

Compact batteries enhanced by spontaneous silver matrix formations

January 9, 2015 7:40 am | by Justin Eure, Brookhaven National Laboratory | News | Comments

In a promising lithium-based battery, the formation of a highly conductive silver matrix transforms a material otherwise plagued by low conductivity. To optimize these multi-metallic batteries, scientists needed a way to see where, when and how these silver, nanoscale "bridges" emerge. Now, researchers have used x-rays to map this changing atomic architecture and revealed its link to the battery's rate of discharge.

Emissions-free cars get closer

January 8, 2015 12:06 pm | by Andrea Boyle Tippett, Univ. of Deleware | News | Comments

A Univ. of Delaware research team is considering the important question of what it will take to create an affordable emissions-free car. Hydrogen fuel cells may be the best option for powering zero-emission vehicles: Toyota has just introduced a hydrogen-powered car in Japan and will make them available in the U.S. in 2015.

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Scientists find unsuspected spectroscopy rules for rattling hydrogen

January 8, 2015 11:02 am | by New York Univ. | News | Comments

It has been taken for granted for over 50 years that the type of spectroscopy widely used to study hydrogen inside materials is not subject to any selection rules. In the joint theoretical and experimental study that appeared recently in Physical Review Letters, an international team of researchers showed that this near universally held view is incorrect for at least one important class of hydrogen-entrapping compounds.

Broad immune response may be needed to destroy latent HIV

January 8, 2015 10:43 am | by Ziba Kashef, Yale Univ. | News | Comments

A major barrier to finding a cure for HIV/AIDS is the presence of latent HIV in the cells of chronically infected individuals. But a team of Yale and Johns Hopkins researchers may have pinpointed a strategy for eliminating the residual virus. Despite treatment with antiretroviral therapy, HIV persists in patients in a latent reservoir.

Quantum hard drive breakthrough

January 8, 2015 9:50 am | by Phil Dooley, The Australian National Univ. | News | Comments

Physicists developing a prototype quantum hard drive have improved storage time by a factor of more than 100. The team’s record storage time of six hours is a major step towards a secure worldwide data encryption network based on quantum information, which could be used for banking transactions and personal emails.

Special delivery

January 8, 2015 8:12 am | by Sonia Fernandez, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara | News | Comments

Inflammation is a normal and often beneficial response to injury or infection. The swelling, heat and even pain are the body’s attempts to protect its soft tissue, remove offending objects, substances or microbes and initiate healing. However, persistent inflammation is often indicative of more serious conditions and can lead to problems of its own, including impaired healing, loss of function or even tissue death.

Which fossil fuels must remain in the ground to limit global warming?

January 7, 2015 2:39 pm | by Bex Caygill, Univ. College London | News | Comments

A third of oil reserves, half of gas reserves and over 80% of current coal reserves globally should remain in the ground and not be used before 2050 if global warming is to stay below the 2 C target agreed by policy makers, according to new research by the UCL Institute for Sustainable Resources.

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Wave energy integration costs should compare favorably to other energy sources

January 7, 2015 2:26 pm | by David Stauth, Oregon State Univ. | News | Comments

A new analysis suggests that large-scale wave energy systems developed in the Pacific Northwest should be comparatively steady, dependable and able to be integrated into the overall energy grid at lower costs than some other forms of alternative energy, including wind power.

“Seeing” hydrogen atoms to unveil enzyme catalysis

January 7, 2015 11:03 am | by Katie Bethea, Oak Ridge National Laboratory | News | Comments

Enzymes are catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in living organisms and control many cellular biological processes by converting a molecule, or substrate, into a product used by the cell. For scientists, understanding details of how enzymes work is essential to the discovery of drugs to cure diseases and treat disorders.

Technology quickly traces source of tainted food

January 7, 2015 10:51 am | by Kenneth Ma, LLNL | News | Comments

Foodborne illnesses kill roughly 3,000 Americans each year and about one in six are sickened, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Yet most contaminated foods are never traced back to their source. That’s because existing methods to track tainted food following its supply chain from table to farm are highly inefficient, jeopardizing the health of millions and costing the food industry billions.

Cheap asphalt provides “green” carbon capture

January 7, 2015 10:29 am | by Mike Williams, Rice Univ. | News | Comments

The best material to keep carbon dioxide from natural gas wells from fouling the atmosphere may be a derivative of asphalt, according to Rice Univ. scientists. The Rice laboratory of chemist James Tour followed up on last year’s discovery of a “green” carbon capture material for wellhead sequestration with the news that an even better compound could be made cheaply in a few steps from asphalt.

FAA OKs two commercial drone permits

January 7, 2015 9:35 am | by Associated Press, Joan Lowy | News | Comments

The Federal Aviation Administration has issued permits to use drones to monitor crops and photograph properties for sale, marking the first time permission has been granted to companies involved in agriculture and real estate. The exemptions to the current ban on commercial drone flights were granted to Advanced Aviation Solutions in Star, Idaho, for “crop scouting,” and to Douglas Trudeau of Tierra Antigua Realty in Tucson, Arizona.

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Microfluidic Method for Primary Neuron Culture and Analysis

January 7, 2015 8:42 am | by Paul J. Hung, Shin-Yi Cindy Chen, Ivana Zubonja and Terry A. Gaige, EMD Millipore | Articles | Comments

Dissecting neuron function, while crucially important for understanding normal and pathological neurological processes, requires measuring the responses of live cells to external stimuli. Because of the inherent difficulties in performing perturbation analyses inside living organisms, there has been a longstanding drive towards developing methodologies for in vitro analysis of neurons.

Optimizing Industrial Drying Systems Using CFD

January 7, 2015 8:30 am | by Mehul Patel | Articles | Comments

Industrial drying systems are most commonly used in process industries to remove moisture content from the materials. These systems are designed according to the required moisture removal requirement. The working principle of drying systems is purely based on evaporation of liquids from solids.

Steering a quantum path to improved Internet security

January 7, 2015 7:33 am | by Michael Jacobson, Griffith Univ. | News | Comments

Research conducted at Griffith Univ. may lead to greatly improved security of information transfer over the Internet. In a paper published in Nature Communications, physicists from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics demonstrate the potential for "quantum steering" to be used to enhance data security over long distances, discourage hackers and eavesdroppers and resolve issues of trust with communication devices.

Hackers could make smart homes stupid

January 6, 2015 4:40 pm | by Jennifer Donovan, Michigan Technological Univ. | News | Comments

If a hacker got to every smart home in a neighborhood, utility bills would shoot up and brownouts, if not blackouts, would be imminent. It’s a cybersecurity nightmare. And it’s exactly what one Michigan Technological Univ.'s Shiyan Hu is working to prevent. His research focuses on hardware and system security for smart devices, ones with chips embedded that respond to a central controller powered by Wi-Fi.

Body clock protects metabolic health

January 6, 2015 3:30 pm | by Tom Vasich, Univ. of California, Irvine | News | Comments

Univ. of California, Irvine scientists studying the role of circadian rhythms in skin stem cells found that this clock plays a key role in coordinating daily metabolic cycles and cell division. Their research, which appears in Cell Reports, shows, for the first time, how the body’s intrinsic day-night cycles protect and nurture stem cell differentiation.

Planet-hunting satellite to observe supermassive black hole

January 6, 2015 11:00 am | by Joe Hadfield, Brigham Young Univ. | Videos | Comments

If you want to see just how far Brigham Young Univ. (BYU)’s latest research extends, step outside of your house tonight, look up towards the sky, focus your view between the constellations of Cygnus and Lyra, and then zoom in about 100 million light years. That’s the home of a galaxy known as KA 1858, which contains a black hole that BYU scientists observed with the help of NASA and astrophysicists throughout the Univ. of California system.

New technology enables ultra-fast steering, shaping of light beams

January 6, 2015 10:12 am | by Univ. of Bristol | News | Comments

A team of engineers has developed a new acousto-optic device that can shape and steer beams of light at speeds never before achieved. The new technology will enable better optical devices to be made, such as holographs that can move rapidly in real time.

“Flying carpet” technique uses graphene to deliver one-two punch of anticancer drugs

January 6, 2015 10:02 am | by Matt Shipman, News Services, North Carolina State Univ. | News | Comments

An international team of researchers has developed a drug delivery technique that utilizes graphene strips as “flying carpets” to deliver two anticancer drugs sequentially to cancer cells, with each drug targeting the distinct part of the cell where it will be most effective. The technique was found to perform better than either drug in isolation when tested in a mouse model targeting a human lung cancer tumor.

“Iron sun”: The key to how stars transmit energy

January 6, 2015 8:34 am | by Neal Singer, Sandia National Laboratories | News | Comments

Working at temperatures matching the interior of the sun, researchers have been able to determine experimentally, for the first time, iron’s role in inhibiting energy transmission from the center of the sun to near the edge of its radiative band. Because that role is much greater than formerly surmised, the experimentally derived amount of iron’s opacity helps close a theoretical gap in the Standard Solar Model.

Crowd science provides major boost for certain research projects

January 6, 2015 8:04 am | by John Toon, Georgia Institute of Technology | News | Comments

Crowd science is making possible research projects that might otherwise be out of reach, tapping thousands of volunteers to help with such tasks as classifying animal photos, studying astronomical images, counting sea stars and examining cancer cell images. Also known as “citizen science,” these efforts to involve ordinary people in research projects have attracted interest from policy makers, scientific agencies and others.

DNA origami could lead to nano “transformers” for biomedical applications

January 5, 2015 3:59 pm | by Pam Frost Gorder, Ohio State Univ. | Videos | Comments

If the new nanomachines built at The Ohio State Univ. look familiar, it’s because they were designed with full-size mechanical parts such as hinges and pistons in mind. The project is the first to prove that the same basic design principles that apply to typical full-size machine parts can also be applied to DNA; and can produce complex, controllable components for future nanorobots.

“Glowing” new nanotechnology guides cancer surgery

January 5, 2015 3:41 pm | by David Stauth, Oregon State Univ. | News | Comments

Researchers at Oregon State Univ. have developed a new way to selectively insert compounds into cancer cells—a system that will help surgeons identify malignant tissues and then, in combination with phototherapy, kill any remaining cancer cells after a tumor is removed. It’s about as simple as, “If it glows, cut it out.” And if a few malignant cells remain, they’ll soon die.

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