Nature’s artistic and engineering skills are evident in proteins. Scientists at Rice Univ. have now employed their unique theories to show how the interplay between evolution and physics developed these skills. The team used computer models to show that the energy landscapes that describe how nature selects viable protein sequences over evolutionary timescales employ the same forces as those that allow proteins to fold.
Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that causes malaria, has proven notoriously resistant to scientists’ efforts to study its genetics. It can take up to a year to determine the function of a single gene, which has slowed efforts to develop new, more targeted drugs and vaccines. Biological engineers have now demonstrated a new genome-editing technique that can disrupt a single parasite gene in a matter of weeks.
Visual impairment comes in many forms, and it's on the rise in America. A Univ. of Cincinnati experiment aimed at this diverse and growing population could spark development of advanced tools to help all the aging baby boomers, injured veterans, diabetics and white-cane-wielding pedestrians navigate the blurred edges of everyday life.
Univ. College London scientists have discovered a new method to efficiently generate and control currents based on the magnetic nature of electrons in semiconducting materials, offering a new way to develop a new generation of electronic devices. One promising approach to developing new technologies is to exploit the electron’s tiny magnetic moment, or spin.
It’s estimated that more than half of U.S. energy is wasted as heat. Mostly, this waste heat simply escapes into the air. But that’s beginning to change, thanks to thermoelectric innovators such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Gang Chen. Thermoelectric materials convert temperature differences into electric voltage.
Analytical chemist, author and R&D Magazine’s longest-tenured columnist and contributing editor Frederic B. Jueneman passed away recently in his hometown of Newark, Calif. An industrial analytical chemist by trade, Jueneman’s columns, full of fresh and insightful ideas, earning a dedicated following among R&D’s readership.
Some of the most damaging brain diseases can be traced to irregular blood delivery in the brain. Now, Stanford Univ. chemists have employed lasers and carbon nanotubes to capture an unprecedented look at blood flowing through a living brain. The technique was developed for mice but could one day be applied to humans, potentially providing vital information in the study of stroke and migraines.
Physicists at NIST have demonstrated a pas de deux of atomic ions that combines the fine choreography of dance with precise individual control. NIST’s ion duet is a component for a flexible quantum simulator that could be scaled up in size and configured to model quantum systems of a complexity that overwhelms traditional computer simulations.
Researchers at Yale School of Medicine have discovered a new drug compound that reverses the brain deficits of Alzheimer’s disease in an animal model. The compound, TC-2153, inhibits the negative effects of a protein called STtriatal-Enriched tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP), which is key to regulating learning and memory. These cognitive functions are impaired in Alzheimer’s.
Researchers at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have developed a laser-timing system that could allow scientists to take snapshots of electrons zipping around atoms and molecules. Taking timing to this new extreme of speed and accuracy at the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray laser will make it possible to see the formative stages of chemical reactions.
Sequencing the genomes of tumor cells has revealed thousands of mutations associated with cancer. One way to discover the role of these mutations is to breed a strain of mice that carry the genetic flaw—but breeding such mice is an expensive, time-consuming process. Now, Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers have found an alternative.
The use of an experimental drug to treat two Americans diagnosed with Ebola is raising ethical questions about who gets first access to unproven new therapies for the deadly disease. But some health experts fear debate over extremely limited doses will distract from tried-and-true measures to curb the growing outbreak.
MIT engineers have fabricated a new elastic material coated with microscopic, hairlike structures that tilt in response to a magnetic field. Depending on the field’s orientation, the microhairs can tilt to form a path through which fluid can flow; the material can even direct water upward, against gravity. Researchers say structures may be used in windows to wick away moisture.
In 2012, a team of researchers in London imaged, for the first time, the structure of the DNA double helix. James Watson and Francis Crick discovered DNA 60 years ago by laboriously studying x-ray diffraction images of millions of DNA molecules. However, Dr. Bart Hoogenboom and Dr. Carl Leung used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to directly “feel” the molecule’s structure in a fraction of the time.
Traditional lithography is based on a simple principle: Oil and water don’t mix. The method, first developed by an actor in Bavaria in 1796, used a smooth piece of limestone on which an oil-based image was drawn and overlayed with gum arabic in water. During printing, the ink was attracted to the oil, and was repelled by the gum.
Life science researchers are benefiting from easy-to-use, ultra-fast, automated and integrated platforms that address specific application needs. These platforms combine hardware, software and reagents into integrated, push-button analysis systems capable of transforming workflows which once took several days into minutes.
In the ultra-low-temperature (ULT) freezer market there’s a continued focus on sample protection. As users store priceless samples, they need to have ULT freezers that provide them with quick recovery and uniformity after door openings. However, for most users, the trend is pointing to energy efficiency and cost, as ULT freezers cost as much to operate in a year as an average American household, according to the Univ. of California, Davis.
The global 3-D scanning market is estimated to grow from $2.06 billion in 2013 to $4.08 billion by 2018, at a CAGR of 14.6% from 2013 to 2018, according to a MarketsandMarkets report. Recent trends in the industry show 3-D scanning as improving, with a huge demand. And 3-D scanning with services like reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and quality inspection, makes it suitable for most verticals.
Oscilloscope technology is developing at a fast pace with more features packed into smaller and less expensive packages, providing engineers with more choices in the expanding marketplace. Recent market analysis from TechNavio notes the global oscilloscope market will grow at a 20% CAGR through 2016.
Wireless technology is already widespread in the research laboratory and industrial settings, where solutions are supported by WiFi and the advent of smartphones and tablets. Dedicated wireless platforms for scientific instruments, however, are more unusual. The reason for this is economies of scale.
Sample preparation is a critical step in the analytical process. Studies report that sample prep can represent about 60% of a laboratory technician’s time and also forms one of the principal sources of error. Many techniques to conduct sample prep are available to researchers, such as filtration, digestion, dialysis, liquid/liquid extraction and solid phase extraction.
The engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale, nanotechnology refers to the applied part of nanoscience which typically includes the engineering to control, manipulate and structure matter at an atomically small scale. Nanotechnology as a field is nothing less than diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly.
Imagine a world in which your wristwatch or other wearable device communicates directly with your online profiles, storing information about your daily activities where you can best access it—all without requiring batteries. Or, battery-free sensors embedded around your home could track minute-by-minute temperature changes and send that information to your thermostat to help conserve energy.
Yale Univ. scientists have chosen the most fleeting of mediums for their groundbreaking work on biomimicry: They’ve changed the color of butterfly wings. In so doing, they produced the first structural color change in an animal by influencing evolution. The discovery may have implications for physicists and engineers trying to use evolutionary principles in the design of new materials and devices.
An outline of Marilyn Monroe's iconic face appeared on the clear, plastic film when a researcher fogs it with her breath. Terry Shyu, a doctoral student in chemical engineering at the Univ. of Michigan, was demonstrating a new high-tech label for fighting drug counterfeiting. While the researchers don't envision movie stars on medicine bottles, they used Monroe's image to prove their concept.