Astronomers predict that large spiral galaxies, like our Milky Way, have hundreds of satellite galaxies orbiting around them. While a few satellites are visible, like the Magellanic Clouds, many other galaxies are too dim to see. Scientists suspect that these faint satellite galaxies are primarily comprised of mysterious dark matter, which makes up 85% of all matter in the universe and so far remains undetected. Using supercomputers at the NERSC, Sukanya Chakrabarti, has developed a mathematical method uncover these “dark” satellites.
A new catalytic chemical method for the synthesis of a large and important class of carbon-carbon double bonds has been developed by scientists from Boston College and MIT, the team reports in the journal Nature . The findings expand the versatility of a set of metal-based catalysts discovered only three years ago by the researchers.
Researchers at Rice Univ. have created a synthetic material that gets stronger from repeated stress much like the body strengthens bones and muscles after repeated workouts.
A Syracuse Univ. chemist has developed a way to use very low frequency light waves to study the weak forces (London dispersion forces) that hold molecules together in a crystal. This fundamental research could be applied to solve critical problems in drug research, manufacturing, and quality control.
A highly sensitive sensor that combines a variety of testing means (electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning) into one device has been developed at the Univ. of Cincinnati. It’s already been tested in a variety of settings—including testing for components in nuclear waste.
Univ. of Michigan engineering researchers have designed an efficient fluorescent blue OLED, or organic light emitting diode. Traditionally, the ceiling for the efficiency of fluorescent OLEDs was believed to be 5%. Now, the team has produced fluorescent OLEDs with close to 10% efficiency.
Researchers at Brown Univ. have created nanoscale surfaces for implanted materials that mimic the contours of natural skin. The surfaces attract skin cells that, over time, are shown to build a natural seal against bacterial invasion.
Structural studies of some of nature's most efficient light-harvesting systems are lighting the way for new generations of biologically inspired solar cell devices. Researchers from Washington Univ. in St. Louis and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory used small-angle neutron scattering to analyze the structure of chlorosomes in green photosynthetic bacteria.
Univ. of Minnesota researchers are a key step closer to making renewable petroleum fuels using bacteria, sunlight, and dioxide, a goal funded by a $2.2 million United States Department of Energy grant.
A recently patented adhesive made by Kansas State Univ. researchers could become a staple in every astronaut's toolbox.
Are we all Martians? According to many planetary scientists, it's conceivable that all life on Earth is descended from organisms that originated on Mars and were carried here aboard meteorites. If that's the case, an instrument being developed by researchers at MIT and Harvard could provide the clinching evidence.
Harvard mathematicians reveal that ruffling at the edge of each petal drives the delicate flower to open, contradicting common theories of blooming.
A new "templated growth" technique for fabricating nanoribbons of epitaxial graphene has produced structures just 15 to 40 nm wide that conduct current with almost no resistance. These structures could address the challenge of connecting graphene devices made with conventional architectures.
Purdue Univ. researchers have collaborated with scientists at General Atomics to create safe and efficient pellets to power hydrogen fuel cells that can run an array of portable electronic devices.
In a series of recent papers, researchers at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory have demonstrated a promising new technique for modeling protein folding. While not as accurate as some existing techniques, it is much more computationally efficient. Sophisticated, atom-by-atom simulations that run on hundreds of thousands of computers might take months to model a few milliseconds of protein folding. The researchers’ new technique can model the same process in minutes on a single laptop.
Researchers have revealed a new single-stage method for recharging the hydrogen storage compound ammonia borane. The breakthrough makes hydrogen a more attractive fuel for vehicles and other transportation modes.
The batteries in Illinois professor Paul Braun’s lab look like any others, but they pack a surprise inside. Braun’s group developed a three-dimensional nanostructure for battery cathodes that allows for faster charging and discharging without sacrificing energy storage capacity.
Engineers at Ohio State Univ. have invented a lens that enables microscopic objects to be seen from nine different angles at once to create a 3D image.
Physicists at UCLA set out to design a better transistor and ended up discovering a new way to think about the structure of space.
With intensity a million times brighter than sunlight, a new synchrotron-based imaging technique offers high-resolution pictures of the molecular composition of tissues with high speed and quality. Carol Hirschmugl, a physicist at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM), led a team of researchers from UWM, the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and the Univ. of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) to demonstrate these new capabilities.
For many years, scientists have searched for ways to assemble nanoparticles into larger structures of any desired shape and form at will. This effect has been achieved in a new study by using a laser as if it were a magic wand, creating an assembled, continuous filament as the laser beam is moved around.
By mutating a single gene, researchers at MIT and Duke have produced mice with two of the most common traits of autism—compulsive, repetitive behavior and avoidance of social interaction.
Berkeley Lab researchers have enhanced the spontaneous magnetization in a special form of multiferroic bismuth ferrite. What’s more, they can turn this magnetization “on/off” through the application of an external electric field, an ability for the advancement of spintronic technology.
Fluctuating magnetic stripes could be the cause of the mysterious hourglass-shaped magnetic spectrum found in high temperature superconductors, according to new research.
Physicists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics succeeded in manipulating atoms individually in a lattice of light and in arranging them in arbitrary patterns. These results are an important step towards large-scale quantum computing and for the simulation of condensed matter systems.