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The Lead

Making lab-grown tissues stronger

October 31, 2014 8:54 am | by Andy Fell, UC Davis News Service | News | Comments

Lab-grown tissues could one day provide new treatments for injuries and damage to the joints, including articular cartilage, tendons and ligaments. Cartilage, for example, is a hard material that caps the ends of bones and allows joints to work smoothly. Univ. of California, Davis biomedical engineers, exploring ways to toughen up engineered cartilage and keep natural tissues strong outside the body, report new developments.

Lord of the microrings

October 31, 2014 8:39 am | by Lynn Yarris, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

A significant breakthrough in laser technology has been reported by Lawrence Berkeley National...

Self-driving vehicles generate enthusiasm, concerns worldwide

October 31, 2014 8:22 am | by Bernie DeGroat, Univ. of Michigan | News | Comments

Despite safety concerns about equipment failure, a majority of drivers on three continents have...

Raising cryptography’s standards

October 31, 2014 8:07 am | by Larry Hardesty, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Most modern cryptographic schemes rely on computational complexity for their security. In...

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Nikon Small World names winners of 40th anniversary competition

October 30, 2014 2:25 pm | News | Comments

Nikon Instruments, Inc. has revealed the winners of the 40th annual Nikon Small World Photomicrography Competition, awarding first prize to veteran competitor Rogelio Moreno of Panama for capturing a rarely seen image of a rotifer’s open mouth interior and heart-shaped corona.

Microrockets fueled by water neutralize chemical, biological warfare agents

October 30, 2014 8:46 am | by American Chemical Society | News | Comments

With fears growing over chemical and biological weapons falling into the wrong hands, scientists are developing microrockets to fight back against these dangerous agents, should the need arise. In ACS Nano, they describe new spherical micromotors that rapidly neutralize chemical and biological agents and use water as fuel.

NIST “combs” atmosphere to measure greenhouse gases

October 30, 2014 8:36 am | by Laura Ost, NIST | News | Comments

By remotely "combing" the atmosphere with a custom laser-based instrument, researchers from NIST, in collaboration with researchers from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have developed a new technique that can accurately measure—over a sizeable distance—amounts of several of the major "greenhouse" gases implicated in climate change.

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Are my muscular dystrophy drugs working?

October 30, 2014 8:25 am | by Mary Beckman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | News | Comments

People with muscular dystrophy could one day assess the effectiveness of their medication with the help of a smartphone-linked device, a new study in mice suggests. The study used a new method to process ultrasound imaging information that could lead to hand-held instruments that provide fast, convenient medical information.

Afingen uses precision method to enhance plants

October 30, 2014 8:17 am | by Julie Chao, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

Imagine being able to precisely control specific tissues of a plant to enhance desired traits without affecting the plant’s overall function. Thus a rubber tree could be manipulated to produce more natural latex. Trees grown for wood could be made with higher lignin content, making for stronger yet lighter-weight lumber.

Tiny nanopores make big impact

October 30, 2014 8:05 am | by Anne M. Stark, Lawrence Livermore National Laboraotry | News | Comments

A team led by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists has created a new kind of ion channel consisting of short carbon nanotubes, which can be inserted into synthetic bilayers and live cell membranes to form tiny pores that transport water, protons, small ions and DNA. These carbon nanotube “porins” have significant implications for future health care and bioengineering applications.

Sculpting solar systems: Magnetic fields seen for first time

October 30, 2014 7:50 am | by Liz Ahlberg, Physical Sciences Editor, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | News | Comments

Astronomers have caught their first glimpse of the invisible magnetic fields that sculpt solar systems. Looking at a bright, nearby baby star and the dust swirling in its cradle, astronomers from the Univ. of Illinois and six collaborating institutions were able to make out the shape of the magnetic field surrounding the star.

Harnessing error-prone chips

October 30, 2014 7:40 am | by Larry Hardesty, MIT News Office | News | Comments

As transistors get smaller, they also grow less reliable. Increasing their operating voltage can help, but that means a corresponding increase in power consumption. With information technology consuming a steadily growing fraction of the world’s energy supplies, some researchers and hardware manufacturers are exploring the possibility of simply letting chips botch the occasional computation.

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Building the Next Generation of Raman

October 29, 2014 9:40 am | by Brian Davies, VP Marketing and Product Development, Chemical Analysis Div., Thermo Fisher Scientific | Thermo Fisher Scientific | Articles | Comments

Given today’s widespread use of Raman spectroscopy, it can be hard to believe Raman was a highly specialized analytical technique for most of its history. The technique’s potential was recognized from the beginning: When Raman scattering was first observed in 1928, it was widely believed to be one of the most important scientific discoveries of the 20th century to date.

Supply rocket headed to space station explodes

October 28, 2014 9:28 pm | by Marcia Dunn - AP Aerospace Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

An unmanned commercial supply rocket bound for the International Space Station exploded moments after liftoff Tuesday evening, with debris falling in flames over the launch site in Virginia. No injuries were reported following the first catastrophic launch in NASA's commercial spaceflight effort.

Boosting biogasoline production in microbes

October 28, 2014 8:53 am | by Lynn Yarris, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

In the on-going effort to develop advanced biofuels as a clean, green and sustainable source of liquid transportation fuels, researchers at the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Joint BioEnergy Institute have identified microbial genes that can improve both the tolerance and the production of biogasoline in engineered strains of Escherichia coli.

“Sticky” ends start synthetic collagen growth

October 28, 2014 8:12 am | by Mike Williams, Rice Univ. | News | Comments

Rice Univ. researchers have delivered a scientific one-two punch with a pair of papers that detail how synthetic collagen fibers self-assemble via their sticky ends. Collagen is the most common protein in mammals, a major component of bone and the fibrous tissues that support cells and hold organs together. Discovering its secrets may lead to better synthetic collagen for tissue engineering and cosmetic and reconstructive medicine.

Shifting to higher octane

October 28, 2014 7:57 am | by Jennifer Chu, MIT News Office | News | Comments

If the majority of light-duty vehicles in the U.S. ran on higher-octane gasoline, the automotive industry as a whole would reduce its carbon dioxide emissions by 35 million tons per year, saving up to $6 billion in fuel costs, according to a new analysis by Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers.

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New restrictions for those at high Ebola risk

October 27, 2014 6:30 pm | by Mike Stobbe - AP Medical Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

U.S. health officials are recommending that people who are at highest risk for coming down with Ebola avoid commercial travel or attending large public gatherings, even if they have no symptoms. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued the updated advice to state and local officials on Monday.

Remote Monitoring and Diagnostics to Improve ROI

October 27, 2014 10:19 am | by Andy Wight, Director, Service Product Portfolio, Global Services, AB Sciex | Articles | Comments

As a laboratory technician or director, knowing the current status of your instrument or sample runs is critical for your laboratory’s operations and productivity. Through the rapid increase in machine-to-machine connectivity, real-time instrument monitoring services designed to offer visibility and remote control of these instruments has become an enabler in cost savings, efficiency gains, revenue opportunities and competitive advantage.

New dent in HIV-1’s armor

October 27, 2014 8:01 am | by The Salk Institute | Videos | Comments

Like a slumbering dragon, HIV can lay dormant in a person’s cells for years, evading medical treatments only to wake up and strike at a later time, quickly replicating itself and destroying the immune system. Scientists at the Salk Institute have uncovered a new protein that participates in active HIV replication. The new protein, called Ssu72, is part of a switch used to awaken HIV-1 from its slumber.

New hope in treating African sleeping sickness

October 27, 2014 7:53 am | by Joe O'Connell, Staff Writer, Northeastern Univ. | News | Comments

In early drug dis­covery, you need a starting point. In a new research paper pub­lished in PLOS-Neglected Trop­ical Dis­eases, a team of researchers present hun­dreds of such starting points for poten­tially treating Human African try­panoso­mi­asis, or sleeping sick­ness, a deadly dis­ease that affects thou­sands of people annually.

Turning loss to gain

October 27, 2014 7:42 am | by Steven Schultz, Princeton Univ. | News | Comments

Lasers are so deeply integrated into modern technology that their basic operations would seem well understood. CD players, medical diagnostics and military surveillance all depend on lasers. Re-examining longstanding beliefs about the physics of these devices, Princeton Univ. engineers have now shown that carefully restricting the delivery of power to certain areas within a laser could boost its output by many orders of magnitude.

Governors back home quarantine for Ebola workers

October 27, 2014 3:28 am | by Frank Eltman - Associated Press - Associated Press | News | Comments

The governors of New York and New Jersey are at odds with scientists over Ebola as they back 21-day quarantines for medical workers returning from West Africa, while the nation's top infectious-disease expert warns that such restrictions are unnecessary and could discourage volunteers from aiding disease-ravaged countries.

The Need for Speed

October 24, 2014 10:52 am | by Chris Bainter, U.S. National Sales Director and Ross Overstreet, Sr. Science Segment Engineer, FLIR, Goleta, Calif. | FLIR Systems, Inc. | Articles | Comments

Traditional forms of temperature measurement, such as thermocouples and spot pyrometers, often don’t offer the resolution or speed required to fully characterize high-speed thermal applications. This article explores the advantages of high-speed thermal measurement with infrared cameras.

Multiphysics Brings Vaccines to the Developing World

October 24, 2014 10:22 am | by Laura Bowen, COMSOL | COMSOL, Inc. | Articles | Comments

In many areas of the developing world, there’s limited access to electricity, and many places have never had any type of power infrastructure. This presents a challenge for aid workers and doctors. In the recent past, vaccines that needed to be stored at cold, relatively constant temperatures couldn’t be taken into the remote areas where they were needed most.

High field magnet exceeds expectations with 26-T test

October 24, 2014 9:30 am | News | Comments

Certain quantum physical phenomena in matter can only be clearly visualized in the presence of extreme magnetic fields. Physicists in Germany are developing a new high field magnet based on a hybrid design conceived in the U.S. On Oct. 16, 2014, scientists with the High Field Magnet project reported consistent magnetic fields of 26 T, higher than 25-T goal originally conceived.

Evaluating powerful batteries for modular grid energy storage

October 24, 2014 8:31 am | by Stephanie Holinka, Sandia National Laboratories | News | Comments

Sandia National Laboratories has begun laboratory-based characterization of TransPower’s GridSaver, the largest grid energy storage system analyzed at Sandia’s Energy Storage Test Pad in Albuquerque. Sandia will evaluate the 1 MW, lithium-ion grid energy storage system for capacity, power, safety and reliability. The laboratory also will investigate the system’s frequency regulation.

Study reveals molecular structure of water at gold electrodes

October 24, 2014 8:19 am | by Rachel Berkowitz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

When a solid material is immersed in a liquid, the liquid immediately next to its surface differs from that of the bulk liquid at the molecular level. This interfacial layer is critical to our understanding of a diverse set of phenomena. When the solid surface is charged, it can drive further changes in the interfacial liquid. However, elucidating the molecular structure at the solid-liquid interface under these conditions is difficult.

Synthetic biology on ordinary paper, results off the page

October 24, 2014 7:53 am | by Kat J. McAlpine, Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering | News | Comments

New achievements in synthetic biology, which will allow complex cellular recognition reactions to proceed outside of living cells, will dare scientists to dream big: There could one day be inexpensive, shippable and accurate test kits that use saliva or a drop of blood to identify specific disease or infection.

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