An international team of researchers from France and the United States have devised an entirely new way to synthesize graphene ribbons with defined, regular edges, allowing electrons to flow freely through the material. Demonstrating this phenomenon at room temperature, the material was shown to permit electron flow up to 200 times faster than through silicon.
It's not quite the bionics of science fiction, but European researchers have created a robotic hand that gave an amputee a sense of touch he hadn't felt in a decade. The experiment lasted only a week, but it let the patient feel if different objects were hard or soft, slim or round, and intuitively adjust his grasp.
Texas Advanced Computing Center recently reported the results of several massive numerical simulations charting the forces of the universe in its first hundreds of millions of years. The study, which used some of the world's most powerful supercomputers, has refined our understanding of how the first galaxies formed, and, in particular, how metals in the stellar nurseries influenced the characteristics of the stars in the first galaxies.
Working on the cutting edge of a newly emerging area of solar-cell research, Univ. of California, Los Angeles engineers have invented a new process for manufacturing highly efficient photovoltaic materials that shows promise for low-cost industrial production. The new process uses so-called perovskite materials, which in the past few years have significantly advanced scientists' efforts to create the next generation of solar cells.
We all learn in high school science about the dual nature of light—that it exists as both waves and quantum particles called photons. It’s this duality of light that enables the coherent transport of photons in lasers. Sound at the atomic-scale has the same dual nature, existing as both waves and quasi-particles known as phonons. Does this duality allow for phonon-based lasers?
Using electrons more like photons could provide the foundation for a new type of electronic device that would capitalize on the ability of graphene to carry electrons with almost no resistance even at room temperature—a property known as ballistic transport. Research reported that electrical resistance in nanoribbons of epitaxial graphene changes in discrete steps following quantum mechanical principles.
Researchers at Tyndall National Institute in Ireland have produced the first ever atom-by-atom simulation of nanoscale film growth by atomic layer deposition (ALD), a thin-film technology used in the production of silicon chips. The accomplishment required the acquisition of the complete set of hundreds of ALD reactions at the quantum mechanical level.
By sandwiching a biological molecule between sheets of graphene, researchers at the Univ. of Illinois at Chicago have obtained atomic-level images of the molecule in its natural watery environment. Researchers typically rely on relatively thick windows of silicon nitrate to protect specimens in a vacuum environment of an electron microscope, but the atomically-thin graphene sheets promise a major improvement.
A team NIST scientists, with collaborators elsewhere, has achieved a five-fold reduction in the dominant uncertainty in an experiment that measured the mean lifetime of the free neutron, resulting in a substantial improvement of previous results. However, the accomplishment reveals a puzzling discrepancy when compared to different method, and researchers are planning to re-run the experiment in upgraded form.
A Texas bioengineer has received a four-year, $1.4 million National Institutes of Health grant to create a nanoparticle system to shore up arterial walls following angioplasty and stenting procedures to treat coronary arterial disease. Kytai Nguyen discovered a way to use nanoparticles to help the arteries heal themselves more effectively.
Individual silver nanoparticles in solutions typically grow through single atom attachment, but when they reach a certain size they can link with other particles, according to a team which includes scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This seemingly simple result has shifted a long-held scientific paradigm that did not consider kinetic models when explaining how nanoparticle ensembles formed.
Research from a team led by North Carolina State Univ. is opening the door to smarter sensors by integrating the smart material vanadium dioxide onto a silicon chip and using lasers to make the material magnetic. The advance paves the way for multifunctional spintronic smart sensors for use in military applications and next-generation spintronic devices.
Look out, super glue and paint thinner. Thanks to new dynamic materials developed at the Univ. of Illinois, removable paint and self-healing plastics soon could be household products. Other self-healing material systems have focused on solid, strong materials, but this new study uses softer elastic materials made of polyurea, one of the most widely used classes of polymers in consumer goods such as paints, coatings, elastics and plastics.
New research shows that a remarkable defect in synthetic diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition allows researchers to measure, witness, and potentially manipulate electrons in a manner that could lead to new “quantum technology” for information processing.
Designing nanomedicine to combat diseases is a hot area of scientific research, primarily for treating cancer, but very little is known in the context of atherosclerotic disease. Scientists have engineered a microchip coated with blood vessel cells to learn more about the conditions under which nanoparticles accumulate in the plaque-filled arteries of patients with atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of myocardial infarction and stroke.
Trying to find new materials, to improve the performance of anything from microchips to car bodies, has always been a process of trial and error. Massachusetts Institute of Technology materials scientist Gerbrand Ceder likens it to setting out from Boston for California, with neither a map nor a navigation system—and on foot.
In a world’s first, researchers at the National Institute of Materials Science in Japan have succeeded in controlling the length of a one-dimensional, or supramolecular, assembly of molecules. Their method involves molecular self-organization, which until now has not been practical for polymer synthesis because of a lack of knowledge about the interplay of organizational pathways.
Scientists have used a particle physics theory to describe the behavior of particle-like entities, referred to as excitons, in two layers of graphene. The use of equations typically employed in high-energy physics has prompted the authors to suggest a design for an experimental device relying on a magnetically tunable optical filter that could verify their predictions.
Researchers in the George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation have studied concrete buildings constructed before roughly 1980 in the Los Angeles area. Their work has identified examples of this category of buildings, sometimes referred to as nonductile concrete buildings, which are known from experience in previous earthquakes to have the potential for catastrophic collapse during strong earthquakes.
Perfect sheets of diamond a few atoms thick appear to be possible even without the big squeeze that makes natural gems. Scientists have speculated about it and a few laboratories have even seen signs of what they call diamane, an extremely thin film of diamond that has all of diamond’s superior semiconducting and thermal properties.
A group of Washington State Univ. researchers has developed a chewing gum-like battery material that could dramatically improve the safety of lithium-ion batteries. High-performance lithium batteries are popular in everything from computers to airplanes because they are able to store a large amount of energy compared to other batteries. Their biggest potential risk, however, comes from the electrolyte in the battery.
Infrared sensors can be employed in a wide range of applications, such as driver assistance systems for vehicles or thermography for buildings. However, IR detectors need to be permanently cooled, resulting in cameras that are large, heavy and energy-intensive. Researchers are now developing IR sensors for the far-infrared region that can operate at room temperature and a new prototype camera is providing a test bed for development.
Scientists at Argonne National Laboratory attacked a tangled problem by developing a new technique to grow tiny “hairy” materials that assemble themselves at the microscale. The key ingredient is epoxy, which is added to a mixture of hardener and solvent inside an electric cell. Then the scientists run an alternating current through the cell and watch long, twisting fibers spring up. It looks like the way Chia pets grow in commercials.
In the early 1990s, MIT researcher Shuguang Zhang, then an MIT postdoctoral researcher, stumbled upon peptides that could self-assemble into nanostructures, creating 3-D environments for cell culturing. It was, at the time, a breakthrough discovery. But it wouldn’t be until a decade later, in a last-ditch effort to bring this discovery to the public, that these peptides would find commercial application through 3-D Matrix.
Scientists at the Univ. of Strathclyde, U.K., have successfully demonstrated two notable high-power laser research developments: the first ever tunable diamond Raman laser and the first continuous-wave (CW) laser. Both lasers use synthetic diamond material made by California’s Element Six. The breakthrough is a significant achievement in solid-state laser engineering.