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Superconducting secrets solved after 30 years

June 16, 2014 9:14 am | News | Comments

A breakthrough has been made in identifying the origin of superconductivity in high-temperature superconductors, which has puzzled researchers for the past three decades. Researchers in the U.K. have found that ripples of electrons, known as charge density waves or charge order, create twisted ‘pockets’ of electrons in these materials, from which superconductivity emerges.

Nanoscale composites improve MRI

June 16, 2014 7:31 am | by Mike Williams, Rice Univ. | News | Comments

Submicroscopic particles that contain even smaller particles of iron oxide could make magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a far more powerful tool to detect and fight disease. Scientists at Rice Uni. led an international team of researchers in creating composite particles that can be injected into patients and guided by magnetic fields.

Nano-imaging probes molecular disorder

June 13, 2014 10:59 am | News | Comments

In semiconductor-based components, high mobility of charge-carrying particles is important. In organic materials, however, it is uncertain to what degree the molecular order within the thin films affects the mobility and transport of charge carriers. Using a new imaging method, researchers have shown that thin-film organic semiconductors contain regions of structural disorder that could inhibit the transport of charge and limit efficiency.

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Scientists attract water to achieve a clearer view

June 13, 2014 10:47 am | News | Comments

Normally, keeping glass clean and clear depends on repelling or wiping away water droplets. Or a coating attached to help do this. But researchers in Singapore have discovered that doing just the opposite, collecting water, is the key to keeping a surface clear. Their superhydrophilic coating attracts water to create a uniform, thin, transparent layer.

Antibodies from the desert act as guides to disease cells

June 13, 2014 8:19 am | News | Comments

Researchers have developed nanoparticles that not only bypass the body’s defence system, but also find their way to the diseased cells. The procedure uses fragments from a particular type of antibody that only occurs in camels and llamas. The small particles were even successful under conditions which are very similar to the situation within potential patients’ bodies.

New circuit design functions at temperatures greater than 650 F

June 13, 2014 8:16 am | News | Comments

Engineers at the Univ. of Arkansas have designed integrated circuits that can survive at temperatures greater than 350 C—or roughly 660 F. The team achieved the higher performance by combining silicon carbide with wide temperature design techniques. In the world of power electronics and integrated circuits, their work represents the first implementation of a number of fundamental analog, digital and mixed-signal blocks.

Manipulating and detecting ultra-high-frequency sound waves

June 12, 2014 7:59 am | by Lynn Yarris, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

An advance has been achieved towards next-generation ultrasonic imaging with potentially 1,000 times higher resolution than today’s medical ultrasounds. Researchers with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated a technique for producing, detecting and controlling ultra-high-frequency sound waves at the nanometer scale.

Nanotube forests drink water from arid air

June 12, 2014 7:27 am | by Mike Williams, Rice Univ. | News | Comments

If you don’t want to die of thirst in the desert, be like the beetle. Or have a nanotube cup handy. New research by scientists at Rice Univ. demonstrated that forests of carbon nanotubes can be made to harvest water molecules from arid desert air and store them for future use.

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The inflatable concrete dome

June 11, 2014 3:51 pm | News | Comments

When concrete shells are constructed, they usually have to be supported by elaborate timber structures. This is one reason why such structures are now rarely built. In Austria, engineers have developed a new construction method that does not require any solid supporting structure at all. Instead, an air cushion is inflated below a concrete slab, bending the concrete and quickly forming a self-supporting shell.

Researchers introduce new benchmark for field-effect transistors

June 11, 2014 3:32 pm | News | Comments

At the 2014 Symposium on VLSI Technology in Triangle Park, N.C., researchers from the Univ. of California, Santa Barbara introduced the highest-performing class III-V metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) yet demonstrated. The new MOSFETs exhibit, in an industry first, on-current, off-current and operating voltage comparable to or exceeding production silicon devices, while also staying relatively compact.

Crystal IS introduces Optan LED technology

June 11, 2014 3:15 pm | Product Releases | Comments

Crystal IS has introduced Optan, the first commercial semiconductor based on native aluminum nitride (AIN) substrates. Optan increases detection sensitivity from monitoring of chemicals in pharma manufacturing to drinking water analysis.

Researchers in China develop cheaper method for making superlyophobic surfaces

June 11, 2014 11:41 am | News | Comments

Superlyophobic surfaces are simultaneously repellant for almost any liquid and exhibit high contact angles and low flow resist. But the demanding and usually expensive fabrication remains a bottleneck for further development. Researchers in Shenzhen, China, however, have now formulated a facile and inexpensive microfabrication method that uses polymers to help transfer the superlyophobic structures to curable materials.

A new solution for storing hydrogen fuel

June 11, 2014 8:36 am | News | Comments

Turning the “hydrogen economy” concept into a reality, even on a small scale, has been a bumpy road, but scientists are developing a novel way to store hydrogen to smooth out the long-awaited transition away from fossil fuels. Their report on a new solid, stable material that can pack in a large amount of hydrogen that can be used as a fuel appears in Chemistry of Materials.

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DNA-lined nanoparticles form switchable thin films on liquid surface

June 11, 2014 8:22 am | by Karen McNulty Walsh, Brookhaven National Laboratory | News | Comments

Scientists seeking ways to engineer the assembly of tiny particles measuring just billionths of a meter have achieved a new first: the formation of a single layer of nanoparticles on a liquid surface where the properties of the layer can be easily switched. Understanding the assembly of such nanostructured thin films could lead to the design of new kinds of membranes with a variable mechanical response for a wide range of applications.

Improvements in image-detection applications on the horizon

June 11, 2014 7:56 am | by Mike Janes, Sandia National Laboratories | News | Comments

Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories, along with collaborators from Rice Univ. and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, are developing new terahertz detectors based on carbon nanotubes that could lead to significant improvements in medical imaging, airport passenger screening, food inspection and other applications.

Tiny laser-powered sensor-on-a-chip tests chemical composition of liquids

June 11, 2014 7:51 am | News | Comments

Simple solid-state lasers consist of only one material. But quantum cascade lasers are made of a perfectly optimized layer system of different materials so the wavelength of the laser can be tuned. Now a method has been developed in Austria to create a laser and a detector at the same time, on one single chip, in such a way that the wavelength of the laser perfectly matches the wavelength to which the detector is sensitive.

NIST: The clumping density of many things seems to be a standard

June 11, 2014 7:37 am | News | Comments

Particles of soot floating through the air and comets hurtling through space have at least one thing in common: 0.36. That, reports a research group at NIST, is the measure of how dense they will get under normal conditions, and it’s a value that seems to be constant for similar aggregates across an impressively wide size range from nanometers to tens of meters. NIST hopes the results will aid climate researchers.

Technology using microwave heating may impact electronics manufacture

June 10, 2014 3:12 pm | News | Comments

Engineers at Oregon State University have successfully shown that a continuous flow reactor can produce high-quality nanoparticles by using microwave-assisted heating. This is essentially the same force that heats up leftover food with such efficiency, but instead of warming up yesterday’s pizza, this concept may change the production of cell phones and televisions or improve solar energy systems.

Charging portable electronics in 10 minutes

June 10, 2014 3:09 pm | by Sean Nealon, UC Riverside | News | Comments

Researchers at the University of California, Riverside Bourns College of Engineering have developed a 3-D, silicon-decorated, cone-shaped carbon-nanotube cluster architecture for lithium ion battery anodes that could enable charging of portable electronics in 10 minutes. It also increases cell capacity and reduces size and weight by 40%.

Designing ion “highway systems” for batteries

June 10, 2014 2:19 pm | News | Comments

Since the early 1970s, lithium has been the most popular element for batteries because of it’s low weight and good electrochemical potential. But it is also highly flammable. Researchers have recently married two traditional theories in materials science that can explain how the charge dictates the structure of the material. And using this they may be able to move to other materials, such as block copolymers, for use in batteries.

Research develops “onion” vesicles for drug delivery

June 10, 2014 11:22 am | by Evan Lerner, Univ. of Pennsylvania | News | Comments

One of the defining features of cells is their membranes. Each cell’s repository of DNA and protein-making machinery must be kept stable and secure from invaders and toxins. Scientists have attempted to replicate these properties, but, despite decades of research, even the most basic membrane structures, known as vesicles, still face many problems when made in the laboratory.

PerkinElmer launches new real-time air quality sensor network

June 10, 2014 7:52 am | News | Comments

PerkinElmer, Inc., has announced the launch of Elm, an innovative air monitoring service providing local air quality analysis for individuals, smart cities and sustainable communities. The Elm service enables the visualization and understanding of relevant real-time air quality detail, providing data that can be immediately accessed, both online and on mobile devices.

Researchers create nanoparticle thin films that self-assemble in one minute

June 10, 2014 7:51 am | by Lynn Yarris, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

The days of self-assembling nanoparticles taking hours to form a film over a microscopic-sized wafer are over. Researchers with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have devised a technique whereby self-assembling nanoparticle arrays can form a highly ordered thin film over macroscopic distances in one minute.

Auto industry gets serious about lighter materials

June 9, 2014 1:20 pm | by Dee-ann Durbin - AP Auto Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

Roofs made of carbon fiber. Plastic windshields. Bumpers fashioned out of aluminum foam. What sounds like a science experiment could be your next car. While hybrids and electrics may grab the headlines, the real frontier in fuel economy is the switch to lighter materials. Automakers have been experimenting for decades with lightweighting, but the effort is gaining urgency with the adoption of tougher gas mileage standards.

New nanoparticles bring cheaper, lighter solar cells outdoors

June 9, 2014 11:37 am | by Marit Mitchell, Senior Communications Office, Univ. of Toronto | News | Comments

Think those flat, glassy solar panels on your neighbor’s roof are the pinnacle of solar technology? Think again. Researchers at Univ. of Toronto have designed and tested a new class of solar-sensitive nanoparticle that outshines the current state of the art employing this new class of technology.

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