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Food allergies: A new, simple method to track down allergens

July 8, 2014 1:20 pm | News | Comments

Scientists in Switzerland have developed a fast and accurate method for determining exactly which proteins cause allergies to milk. The novel approach, which is based on a specialized form of laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry, is highly personalized and can extend to other foods as well.

Forgotten vials of smallpox found in storage room

July 8, 2014 12:29 pm | by Mike Stobbe, AP Medical Writer | News | Comments

Government officials say workers cleaning a storage room at National Institutes of Health in Maryland made a startling discovery last week. Decades-old vials of smallpox had been forgotten in a cardboard box. The only other known smallpox samples are in super-secure labs in the U.S. and Russia.

MIT finger device reads to the blind in real time

July 8, 2014 10:30 am | by Rodrique Ngowi, Associated Press | News | Comments

Scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are developing an audio reading device to be worn on the index finger of people whose vision is impaired, giving them affordable and immediate access to printed words. The so-called FingerReader, a prototype produced by a 3-D printer, fits like a ring on the user's finger, and is equipped with a small camera that scans text.

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Scientists report contradictory findings on the effect of full moon on sleep

July 8, 2014 10:24 am | by Krister Svahn, Univ. of Gothenberg | News | Comments

Studies through the years have attempted to prove or disprove the hypothesis that lunar phases affect human sleep. But results have been hard to repeat. A Swiss research study conducted last year showed that the full moon does affect sleep. The findings demonstrated that people average 20 minutes less sleep, take five minutes longer to fall asleep and experience 30 minutes more of REM sleep, during which most dreaming is believed to occur.

Artificial cilia: Scientists develop nanostructured transportation system

July 7, 2014 3:40 pm | News | Comments

For billions of years, bacteria have moved themselves using cilia. Now, researchers have constructed molecules that imitate these tiny, hair-like structures. The innovation was possible by nanofabricating artificial cilia that would respond in just one direction to provide a net displacement of motion.

Dodging dots helps explain brain circuitry

July 7, 2014 3:07 pm | News | Comments

In a new study, Brown Univ. neuroscientists looked cell-by-cell at the brain circuitry that tadpoles, and possibly other animals, use to avoid collisions. The study produced a model of how individual inhibitory and excitatory neurons can work together to control a simple behavior.

Fine-scale climate model projections predict malaria at local levels

July 7, 2014 9:56 am | by Sara LaJeunesse, Penn State | News | Comments

According to a team of researchers who applied a statistical technique to conventional, coarse-scale climate models, population centers in cool, highland regions of East Africa could be more vulnerable to malaria than previously thought, while population centers in hot, lowland areas could be less vulnerable. The new approach improves the accuracy of earlier efforts that used global climate model simulations results.

How knots can swap positions on a DNA strand

July 7, 2014 9:48 am | News | Comments

Recent computer simulations show how, for the first time, two knots on a DNA strand can interchange their positions, with one knot growing in size and the other diffusing along the contour of the first. This swapping of positions on a DNA strand may also happen in living organisms, and the mechanism may play an important role in future technologies such as nanopore sequencing.

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New discovery in living cell signaling

July 7, 2014 9:33 am | by Lynn Yarris, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

An international collaboration of researchers have unlocked the secret behind the activation of the Ras family of proteins, one of the most important components of cellular signaling networks in biology and major drivers of cancers that are among the most difficult to treat. To make the discovery, they performed single molecule studies of Ras activation in a membrane environment.

DNA origami nano-tool provides important clue to cancer

July 7, 2014 9:26 am | News | Comments

Researchers in Sweden have headed a study that provides new knowledge about the EphA2 receptor, which is significant in several forms of cancer. The researchers employed the method of DNA origami, in which a DNA molecule is shaped into a nanostructure, and used these structures to test theories about cell signalling.

“Nanojuice” could improve how doctors examine the gut

July 7, 2014 8:05 am | by Cory Nealon, Univ. at Buffalo | News | Comments

Located deep in the human gut, the small intestine is not easy to examine: X-rays, MRIs and ultrasound images each suffer limitations. Univ. at Buffalo researchers are developing a new imaging technique involving nanoparticles suspended in liquid to form “nanojuice” that patients would drink. Upon reaching the small intestine, doctors would strike the nanoparticles with laser light, providing a non-invasive, real-time view of the organ.

Non-invasive advanced image analysis could lead to better patient care

July 2, 2014 3:40 pm | News | Comments

Obtaining evidence of genetic changes to make a cancer diagnosis usually requires a biopsy, which can be problematic for sensitive regions of the body such as the lungs. Based on recent review of patients with lung cancer, researchers have found that scanning the tumor cells with quantitative computed tomography based texture analysis (QTA) determines (with 90% accuracy) whether the patient's tumor had a cancer-causing gene mutation.

New approach for tuberculosis drugs

July 2, 2014 3:13 pm | by Angelika Jacobs, ETH Zurich | News | Comments

In the past 50 years, only one new tuberculosis drug has come on to the market, yet many more active substances are urgently needed. Current treatments increasingly fail due to multidrug-resistant pathogens. Researchers in Switzerland have now applied to patent a novel approach for developing new tuberculosis drugs. Their inspiration: a bacteria-derived antibiotic called pyridomycin.

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Scientists withdraw claim about making stem cells

July 2, 2014 1:41 pm | by Malcolm Ritter, AP Science Writer | News | Comments

In two papers published in January in the journal Nature, Japanese and American researchers said that they'd been able to transform ordinary mouse cells into versatile stem cells by exposing them to a mildly acidic environment. The scientists withdrew that claim Wednesday, admitting to "extensive" errors that meant they were “unable to say without a doubt" that the method works.

Some stem cell methods closer to “gold standard” than others

July 2, 2014 1:17 pm | News | Comments

New research led by the Salk Institute shows, for the first time, that stem cells created using two different methods are far from identical. Their work reveals that stem cells created by moving genetic material from a skin cell into an empty egg cell, instead of activating genes to revert adult cells to their embryonic state, more closely resemble human embryonic stem cells, which are considered the gold standard in the field.

Fluorescent molecular rotors could help find anti-cancer drugs

July 2, 2014 12:13 pm | News | Comments

Researchers have already used molecular rotors as viscosity sensor probes in live cells, but a recent study in Singapore is the first to report on the use of fluorescent molecular rotors to study critical protein interactions.

Blind lead the way in brave new world of tactile technology

July 2, 2014 9:46 am | by Yasmin Anwar, UC Berkeley | News | Comments

New research at UC Berkeley has found that people are better and faster at navigating tactile technology when using both hands and several fingers. Moreover, blind people in the study outmaneuvered their sighted counterparts, perhaps because they’ve developed superior cognitive strategies for finding their way around. These insights are useful as more media companies are implementing tactile interfaces.

Behind a marine creature’s bright green fluorescent glow

July 2, 2014 9:43 am | News | Comments

Scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography have conducted the most detailed examination of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) in lancelets, marine invertebrates also known as “amphioxus.” They have deciphered the structural components related to fluorescence and have found that only a few key structural differences at the nanoscale allows the sea creature to emit different brightness levels.

NIH study reveals gene critical to the early development of cilia

July 2, 2014 9:24 am | News | Comments

Researchers at the National Eye Institute have described the functions of a gene responsible for anchoring cilia, which are sensory hair-like extensions present on almost every cell of the body. They show in a mouse model that without the gene Cc2d2a, cilia throughout the body failed to grow, and the mice died during the embryonic stage.

Automated dynamic light scattering benefits protein-protein quantifications

July 1, 2014 2:08 pm | Application Notes

Wyatt Technology Corp. has highlighted a recently authored study that outlines the advantages of quantifying protein-protein interactions (PPI) using automated dynamic light scattering (DLS) in high-throughput screening (HTS) mode to identify promising candidates for drug-like properties. Automated DLS helps establish the suitability of formulations before entering extended stability studies.

Research may help prevent eye injury among soldiers

July 1, 2014 11:50 am | by K.C. Gonzalez, UTSA | News | Comments

In a basement laboratory at Fort Sam Houston military base in Texas, a research team has spent the last two years simulating improvised explosive device blasts on postmortem pig eyes using a high-powered shock tube. Their most striking discovery is that these blasts can damage the optic nerve, and these injuries can occur even at low pressures, causing visual defects that until now have been associated traumatic brain injuries.

Research team pursues techniques to improve elusive stem cell therapy

July 1, 2014 10:16 am | News | Comments

Mesenchymal stem cells have become attractive tools for bioengineers, but some scientists haven’t given up on their regenerative potential. A research team at Harvard Univ. recently found that transplanting mesenchymal stem cells along with blood vessel-forming cells naturally found in circulation improves results. This co-transplantation keeps the mesenchymal stem cells alive longer in mice after engraftment, up to weeks from just hours.

Cellular team players

July 1, 2014 9:41 am | News | Comments

Many enzymes work only with a co-trainer, of sorts. Scientists in Germany have shown what this kind of cooperation looks like in detail using a novel methodology applied to the heat shock protein Hsp90, which controls the proper folding of other proteins. Together with a second molecule, the co-chaperone P23, it splits the energy source ATP to yield the energy it needs to do its work.

Reconstructing the life history of a single cell

June 30, 2014 2:26 pm | News | Comments

Researchers have developed new methods to trace the life history of individual cells back to their origins in the fertilized egg. By looking at the copy of the human genome present in healthy cells, and by looking at the numbers and types of mutations in a cell's DNA, biologists in the U.K. have been able to build a picture of each cell's development from the early embryo on its journey to become part of an adult organ.

Researchers show that bacteria can evolve biological timer to survive antibiotics

June 30, 2014 2:14 pm | News | Comments

Using the quantitative approach of physicists, biologists in Israel have developed experimental tools to measure precisely the bacterial response to antibiotics. Their mathematical model of the process has led them to hypothesize that a daily three-hour dose would enable the bacteria to predict delivery of the drug, and go dormant for that period in order to survive.

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