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New insights into 3-D genome organization, genetic variability

February 18, 2015 8:03 am | by Heather Buschman, Univ. of California, San Diego | News | Comments

While genomics is the study of all of the genes in a cell or organism, epigenomics is the study of all the genomic add-ons and changes that influence gene expression but aren’t encoded in the DNA sequence. A variety of new epigenomic information is now available in a collection of studies published in Nature by the National Institutes of Health Roadmap Epigenomics Program.

Washington state panel mulls bill to trim vaccine exemptions

February 17, 2015 4:28 pm | by Rachel La Corte,Associated Press | News | Comments

Personal or philosophical opposition to vaccines would not be an authorized exemption for the parents of school-age children under a measure that received a public hearing before a House committee on Tuesday, drawing at least two dozen opponents to the proposed change.

Molecular inhibitor breaks cycle that leads to Alzheimer’s

February 17, 2015 11:02 am | by Tom Kirk, Univ. of Cambridge | News | Comments

A molecule that can block the progress of Alzheimer's disease at a crucial stage in its development has been identified by researchers in a new study, raising the prospect that more such molecules may now be found. The report shows that a molecular chaperone can play the role of an "inhibitor" part-way through the molecular process that's thought to cause Alzheimer's.

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More infectious diseases emerging because of climate change

February 17, 2015 9:03 am | by Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln Communications | News | Comments

The appearance of infectious diseases in new places and new hosts, such as West Nile virus and Ebola, is a predictable result of climate change, says a noted zoologist affiliated with the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology at the Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln.  

KSU researchers develop heat-tolerant wheat

February 15, 2015 4:43 pm | by The Associated Press | News | Comments

Two Kansas State Univ. researchers are developing a type of wheat that will tolerate hotter temperatures. The issue is that wheat kernels shrivel if temperatures are too high during a period in May and June when they normally begin to fill out in Kansas. The grains do best when temperatures are between 60 and 65 degrees. With every 2- to 3-degree temperature rise, there is a potential 3 to 4% yield loss that occurs.

Vaccine opposition has ebbed and flowed over centuries

February 14, 2015 3:49 am | by Mike Stobbe, AP Medical Writer, Associated Press | News | Comments

They're considered one of mankind's greatest medical achievements, yet people have balked at vaccines almost since the time of the first vaccination—in 1796, when an English country doctor named Edward Jenner inoculated an 8-year-old boy against smallpox. In the mid-1800s, people protested in the streets of Victorian England after the British government began requiring citizens to get the vaccination.

Promise and Limitations of Lab Automation Systems in R&D

February 13, 2015 3:56 pm | by Tim Studt, Editor-in-Chief | News | Comments

Lab automation systems are used in R&D laboratories for a wide range of operational applications and purposes. According to a recent reader survey performed by the editors of R&D Magazine in late-2014, the top three applications include to improve the accuracy of lab operations (selected by 61% of the readers), to improve lab productivity (58%) and to ensure the reliability of the lab operations (48%).

Rivers can be a source of antibiotic resistance

February 13, 2015 2:43 pm | by Univ. or Warwick | News | Comments

Rivers and streams could be a major source of antibiotic resistance in the environment. The discovery comes following a study on the Thames river by scientists at the Univ. of Warwick and the Univ. of Exeter. The study found that greater numbers of resistant bacteria exist close to some waste water treatment works, and that these plants are likely to be responsible for at least half of the increase observed.

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Nasty flu season has peaked, is retreating

February 13, 2015 2:16 pm | by Mike Stobbe, AP Medical Writer, Associated Press | News | Comments

A new report shows this winter's nasty flu season has peaked and is clearly retreating. The flu reached its highest levels around the beginning of January, and stayed there for weeks. The government report out Friday shows flu has become less widespread and less intense in the last couple of weeks in most parts of the country.

Superior Resolution for the Biological World

February 13, 2015 12:47 pm | by Lindsay Hock, Editor | Articles | Comments

Traditional fluorescence microscopy has suffered from the resolution limits imposed by diffraction and the finite wavelength of light. Classical resolution is typically limited to about 200 nm in xy. Due to the nanoscale architecture of many biological structures, researchers developed super-resolution techniques, starting in the 1990s, to overcome this classical resolution limit in light microscopy.

Six Tips to Use When Calibrating Your pH Meter

February 13, 2015 11:50 am | by Hanna Instruments | Articles | Comments

Reliable pH measurements are essential to a variety of processes and industries. From agriculture, to wastewater and plating, to food processing, measuring pH is a crucial step in determining the efficiency of a process or quality of a product. Vital steps in achieving accurate pH results include calibrating a pH meter and ensuring the electrode is working properly.

See here now

February 13, 2015 11:14 am | by Lionel Pousaz, EPFL | News | Comments

An estimated 285 million people are visually impaired worldwide. Age-related macular degeneration alone is the leading cause of blindness among older adults in the Western world. However, Eric Tremblay from EPFL in Switzerland unveiled a new prototype of his telescopic contact lens, giving hope for better, stronger vision.

Making a better wound dressing

February 13, 2015 10:18 am | by American Chemical Society | News | Comments

With a low price tag and mild flavor, tilapia has become a staple dinnertime fish for many Americans. Now it could have another use: helping to heal our wounds. In ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, scientists have shown that a protein found in this fish can promote skin repair in rats without an immune reaction, suggesting possible future use for human patients.

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Gold nanotubes launch a three-pronged attack on cancer cells

February 13, 2015 9:10 am | by Sarah Reed, Univ. of Leeds | News | Comments

Scientists have shown that gold nanotubes have many applications in fighting cancer: internal nanoprobes for high-resolution imaging, drug delivery vehicles and agents for destroying cancer cells. The study, published in Advanced Functional Materials, details the first successful demonstration of the biomedical use of gold nanotubes in a mouse model of human cancer.

Scientists shed light on controversial theory of protein structure

February 13, 2015 8:54 am | by Univ. of Bristol | News | Comments

A team of chemists, biochemists and mathematicians at the Univ. of Bristol have published a paper which explores how protein structures are stabilized. There are many forces that hold together the 3-D, functional structures of proteins. Despite considerable effort, understanding of these forces is still quite rudimentary.

Bacterial armor holds clues for self-assembling nanostructures

February 13, 2015 8:35 am | by Lynn Yarris, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

Imagine thousands of copies of a single protein organizing into a coat of chainmail armor that protects the wearer from harsh and ever-changing environmental conditions. That is the case for many microorganisms. In a new study, researchers with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have uncovered key details in this natural process that can be used for the self-assembly of nanomaterials into complex 2- and 3-D structures.

Shedding light on structure of key cellular “gatekeeper”

February 13, 2015 8:22 am | by Jon Nalick, Caltech | News | Comments

Facing a challenge akin to solving a 1,000-piece jigsaw puzzle while blindfolded, and without touching the pieces, many structural biochemists thought it would be impossible to determine the atomic structure of a massive cellular machine called the nuclear pore complex, which is vital for cell survival. But after 10 years of attacking the problem, a team recently solved almost a third of the puzzle.

Beavers Inspire Method to Aid Tooth Enamel

February 13, 2015 7:00 am | by Northwestern Univ. | News | Comments

Beavers don't brush their teeth, and they don't drink fluoridated water, but a new study reports beavers do have protection against tooth decay built into the chemical structure of their teeth: iron. This pigmented enamel, the researchers found, is both harder and more resistant to acid than regular enamel, including that treated with fluoride.

Squid Edit Their Gene Code As They Go

February 13, 2015 7:00 am | by American Friends of Tel Aviv Univ. | News | Comments

Research that explored RNA editing in the Doryteuthis pealieii squid found it to be the first example of an animal that can edit its own genetic makeup on-the-fly to modify most of its proteins, enabling adjustments to its immediate surroundings.

Cell's Own Mechanism to Blocking Flu

February 13, 2015 7:00 am | by Rockefeller Univ. | News | Comments

Viruses are masters of outsourcing, entrusting their fundamental function– reproduction– to the host cells they infect. But it turns out this highly economical approach also creates vulnerability. Researchers have found an unexpected way the immune system exploits the flu virus’ dependence on its host’s machinery to create new viruses capable of spreading infection.  

Robotic Garden Seeks Light to Grow Soybeans

February 12, 2015 7:00 am | by Purdue Univ. | News | Comments

Professors have designed a robotic platform, soybot, which allows indoor plants to search for light to sustain nourishment. As each soybot moves, the robot transmits both sensor data and positional coordinates to a visualization window in its gallery space.

Dead Zones Aid Oyster Disease

February 12, 2015 7:00 am | by Smithsonian | News | Comments

In shallow waters around the world, where nutrient pollution runs high, oxygen levels can plummet to nearly zero at night. Oysters living in these zones are far more likely to pick up the lethal Dermo disease.

Oil Drilling Banned in Walrus-rich Area

February 12, 2015 7:00 am | by Associated Press, Dan Joling | News | Comments

A plateau on the Arctic Ocean floor, where thousands of Pacific walrus gather to feed and raise pups, has received new protections from the Obama administration that recognize it as a biological hot spot and mark it off-limits to future oil drilling. But the announcement triggered an uproar from Alaska leaders, angry that the federal government was making a decision that they said would harm the state's economy.

Monitoring epilepsy in the brain with a wireless system

February 11, 2015 12:56 pm | by Laure-Anne Pessina, EPFL | News | Comments

The large majority of the 50 million people around the world who suffer from epilepsy can be treated by anticonvulsant drugs.                      

Non-stick material joins portfolio of slippery surface technologies

February 10, 2015 4:16 pm | by Kat J. McAlpine, Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering | News | Comments

More than 80% of microbial infections in the human body are caused by a build–up of bacteria, according to the National Institutes of Health. Bacteria cells gain a foothold in the body by accumulating and forming into adhesive colonies called biofilms, which help them to thrive and survive but cause infections and associated life–threatening risks to their human hosts.

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