Using images from NASA’s Voyager Mission in the 1970s and the orbital Galileo Mission of 1995, researchers have created the first global geological map of Jupiter’s largest moon, Ganymede. With its varied terrain and possible underground ocean, Ganymede is considered a prime target in the search for habitable environments in the solar system.
It's not quite Star Trek communications—yet. But long-distance communications in space may be easier now that researchers have designed a clever detector array that can extract more information than usual from single particles of light. Described in a new paper, the NIST/JPL array-on-a-chip easily identifies the position of the exact detector in a multi-detector system that absorbs an incoming infrared light particle, or photon.
A newly published research paper on super-resolution microscopy from the U.K. highlights best practices in a technique called localization microscopy, which uses fluorescent labelling and computer modelling to bypass the diffraction limit. The method described in the freely available paper summarizes the methods used to process captured images using MATLAB scripts.
To improve their chances of success, in vitro fertilization clinics need to assess the viability of the sperm they use. Now doctors may soon have a new technique to help them sort the good sperm cells from the less viable ones: a tracking system, developed by a team of researchers from four European institutions, that takes 3-D movies of living sperm.
New research at the Univ. of Arkansas reveals a novel magnetoelectric effect that makes it possible to control magnetism with an electric field. The novel mechanism may provide a new route for using multiferroic materials for the application of RAM (random access memories) in computers and other devices, such as printers.
Strange events have long been linked to nights of a full moon, though careful scrutiny dispels any association. So, when signals bounced off the lunar surface returned surprisingly faint echoes on full moon nights, scientists sought an explanation in reason rather than superstition. Still, the most compelling evidence arrived during another event that once evoked irrational fears, on a night when Earth's shadow eclipsed the full moon.
An international partnerships is aiming to develop robust fingerprint sensors with resolution beyond today’s 500 dpi international standards, the minimum required by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation. The new platform uses vertical piezoelectric nanowire matrices designed using multiphysics modeling software.
EQUiSat, a nanosatellite being built by a team of Brown Univ. students, has been cleared for launch. NASA announced that EQUiSat is among 16 small satellites selected to fly on rockets to be launched over the three-year period beginning in 2015. EQUiSat has not been assigned to a particular rocket, but the announcement assures that the student-led project has a ticket to ride.
Writing a program to control a single autonomous robot navigating an uncertain environment with an erratic communication link is hard enough; write one for multiple robots that may or may not have to work in tandem, depending on the task, is even harder. As a consequence, engineers designing control programs for multiagent systems have restricted themselves to special cases. Until now.
Growing up in a traditional society, Abeer Abu Ghaith was often told a woman's future is in her husband's kitchen. Quietly, the 29-year-old proved everyone wrong. Abu Ghaith has become the first female high-tech entrepreneur in the West Bank, setting up an Internet employment brokerage and software development firm.
Molecular physicists in The Netherlands have produced images of the changes in direction of colliding nitrogen monoxide molecules (NO) with unprecedented sharpness. By combining a Stark decelerator with advanced imaging techniques, they were able to obtain very high resolution images of the collision processes. The finding sheds light on the wave nature of molecules by imaging what previously had only been theorized.
Engineers are increasingly turning to plasmonic color filters (PCFs) to create and control a broad spectrum of colors for imaging applications. However, PCF light transmission efficiency has been limited to only about 30%, less than half the rate of conventional filters. Researchers have now developed a new PCF scheme that achieves a transmission efficiency of 60 to 70%.
Legislation unveiled in California would require smartphones and other mobile devices to have a "kill switch" to render them inoperable if lost or stolen. State Sen. Mark Leno, San Francisco District Attorney George Gascon and other elected and law enforcement officials say the bill, if passed, would require mobile devices sold in or shipped to California to have the anti-theft devices starting next year.
Shape is thought to play an important role in the effectiveness of cells grown to repair or replace damaged tissue in the body. To help design new structures that enable cells to "shape up," researchers at NIST have come up with a way to measure, and more importantly, classify, the shapes cells tend to take in different environments.
For more than two years, researchers have been investigating melanopsin, a retina pigment capable of sensing light changes in the environment, informing the nervous system and synchronizing it with the day/night rhythm. They have found that this pigment is potentially more sensitive to light than its more famous counterpart rhodopsin, the pigment that allows night vision.
A team of physicists have used statistical mechanics and mathematical modeling to shed light on something known as epigenetic memory, which allows an organism to create a biological memory of some variable condition, such as quality of nutrition or temperature. The model highlights the "engineering" challenge a cell must constantly face during molecular recognition.
Many companies have recognized an untapped opportunity for improving their development process: the requirements traceability matrix. Rather than wait until the end of the development cycle, the team builds the trace matrix when requirements first go under design control, and maintains it all the way through the submission process.
Via social media, researchers at the Federal Polytechnic Institute of Lausanne (EPFL) will be tracking emotions of the viewing public during the Olympic Games in Sochi. Their goal is to show, in real time, what people are feeling during the competitions. The new software will not only contend with multiple languages and breakneck speed, it will also track dozens of commonly used emoticons.
European scientists from both academia and industry have begun an ambitious new research project focused on an alternative approach to extend Moore's Law. The research project, coordinated IBM Research in Zurich and called COMPOSE³, is based on the use of new materials to replace today's silicon, and on taking an innovative design approach where transistors are stacked vertically, known as 3-D stacking.
Instrumentation company FEI has acquired Lithicon AS of Trondheim, Norway, and Canberra, Australia. Lithicon provides digital rock technology services and pore-scale micro computed tomography (µCT, or microCT) equipment to oil and gas companies worldwide. In conjunction with the acquisition, FEI has obtained the helical scan microCT product and associated software from the Australia National Univ.
For the past eight years, scientists have been puzzled by why some satellite data seemed to show the Amazon rain forest "greening-up" during the region's dry season from June to October. The green-up indicated productive, thriving vegetation in spite of limited rainfall. Now, a new NASA study shows that the appearance of canopy greening is not caused by a biophysical change in Amazon forests, but instead a quirk of satellite imaging.
Seeking a solution to decoherence, scientists have developed a strategy of linking quantum bits together into voting blocks, a strategy that significantly boosts their accuracy. In a recently published paper, the team found that their method results in at least a five-fold increase in the probability of reaching the correct answer when the processor solves the largest problems tested by the researcher, involving hundreds of qubits.
The biggest challenges many elite enterprises face are actually external forces completely out of their control, from geopolitical and economic macro trends to global threats to health and the environment. This lack of control creates a tumultuous global business climate that conspires to unravel even the most well-thought-out strategic plans.
Microscopy is growing at a rapid rate as the result of substantial investment in nanotechnology research. Advances in nanotechnology not only support advances in materials technology, they support developments in the semiconductor and medical devices industries. These billions of dollars drive support for advanced microscopy technologies, which are expected to become a $5 to 6 billion market globally by 2018.
Named “Project Lucy” after the earliest known human ancestor, IBM’s new 10-year, $100 million initiative will bring the Watson computer and other cognitive systems to Africa in a bid to fuel development and spur business opportunities across the world’s fastest growing continent. Watson, whose design team won an R&D Innovator of the Year Award in 2011, improves itself by learning and quickly accessing big data resources.