By combining plasmonics and optical microresonators, researchers at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have created a new optical amplifier (or laser) design, paving the way for power-on-a-chip applications. The speed of currently available semiconductor electronics is limited to about 10 GHz due to heat generation and interconnects delay time issues.
For tiny fractions of a second, when illuminated by a laser pulse, quartz glass can take on metallic properties. The phenomenon, recently revealed by large-scale computer simulations, frees electrons, allowing quartz to become opaque and conduct electricity. The effect could be used to build logical switches which are much faster than today’s microelectronics.
Bridges become an infrastructure problem as they get older, as de-icing salt and carbon dioxide gradually destroy the reinforced concrete. A new robot called C2D2 (Climbing Corrosion Detecting Device) is now in use in Switzerland and can check the condition of these structures, even in places that people cannot reach.
Eight U.S. Dept. of Energy national laboratories are combining forces to use high performance computing to build the most complete climate and Earth system model yet devised. The project, called Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy, or ACME, is designed to accelerate the development and application of fully coupled, state-of-the-science Earth system models for scientific and energy applications.
Researchers in Switzerland have created an Android app which lets users get together to crack a modern cryptographic code. Building on earlier work that used a network of 300 PlayStation consoles, the scientists decided to leverage the power of smartphones. By running the algorithm a very large number of times the code may be broken eventually.
Sandia National Laboratories’ Goma 6.0 is software for numerical simulation of multiphysics continuum processes, including moving geometry, phase-change, fluid-structural interactions, complex rheology and chemical reactions. It solves the fundamental equations of mass, momentum, energy and chemical species transport using the finite element method (FEM), which can be described by partial differential equations.
Modeling and simulation is standard practice in nearly every scientific field. Idaho National Laboratory’s Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) has transformed approaches to predictive simulation, making it quick, adaptable and more accessible. MOOSE is a computer software that can be loaded onto most UNIX-compliant operating systems including, but not limited to, Mac OS X, Ubuntu, OpenSuSE, Fedora, CentOS and Redhat.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed iSPM: Intelligent Software Suite for Personalized Modeling of Expert Opinions, Decisions and Errors in Visual Examination Tasks, a novel technology utilizing eye-tracking hardware, an intelligent GUI engine and advanced analytics to predict an individual’s perceptual behavior, cognitive response and risk of error for complex decision tasks such as cancer diagnosis from medical images.
Mapping of the human genome has advanced our understanding of life, health and potential cures for diseases. Many technologies could benefit from genome-level investigations. Now, a disruptive virtual scientific simulation tool that delivers a genome-level investigation for electrolytes is available. Idaho National Laboratory’s Kevin Gering has developed the Advanced Electrolyte Model (AEM), a molecular-based, scientifically proven simulation tool.
The future of movie, sports and concert broadcasting lies in 4K definition, which will bring cinema quality TV viewing into people’s homes. With its 3840 x 2160 resolution, 4K Ultra HD has four times as many pixels as today’s Full HD. The new HEVC video compression standard now allows broadcasters to transmit live video in the 4K digital cinema standard, and was used recently to broadcast a soccer game in Germany.
David Erickson, a professor at Cornell Univ., will receive a $3 million National Science Foundation grant over five years to adapt smartphones for health monitoring. The program, dubbed PHeNoM for Public Health, Nanotechnology, and Mobility, aims to deploy three systems that can have an immediate impact on personal healthcare.
A mechanical engineering student at EPFL in Switzerland wanted to understand the reason behind the formation of a “foam volcano” after tapping the neck of a bottle of beer. He studied the phenomenon with a high-speed camera and compared it to the outcome of applying the same action to sparkling water. His work offers insights into the behavior of cavitation nuclei.
It’s well known that compared with 2-D cell culture models, 3-D cell culture models have different patterns of development, respond differently to therapeutic targets and have different patterns of gene expression. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s BioSig3D is the only computational platform that provides Web-based delivery of image-based bioinformatics technology from 3-D cell culture models that are imaged in full 3-D using either confocal or deconvolution microscopy.
Princeton Univ. researchers have developed a way to use a laser to measure people's blood sugar, and, with more work to shrink the laser system to a portable size, the technique could allow diabetics to check their condition without pricking themselves to draw blood.
In the near future, the package that you ordered online may be deposited at your doorstep by a drone: Last December, online retailer Amazon announced plans to explore drone-based delivery, suggesting that fleets of flying robots might serve as autonomous messengers that shuttle packages to customers within 30 mins of an order.
Researchers from North Carolina State Univ. have developed a novel and versatile modeling strategy to simulate polyelectrolyte systems. The model has applications for creating new materials as well as for studying polyelectrolytes, including DNA and RNA. Polyelectrolytes are chains of molecules that are positively or negatively charged when placed in water.
Computer security researchers have developed a modification to the core Android operating system that allows developers and users to plug in new security enhancements. The new Android Security Modules (ASM) framework aims to eliminate the bottleneck that prevents developers and users from taking advantage of new security tools.
With a method known as finite element analysis (FEA), engineers can generate 3-D digital models of large structures to simulate how they’ll fare under stress, vibrations, heat and other real-world conditions. Used for mapping out large-scale structures, these simulations require intensive computation done by powerful computers over many hours, costing engineering firms much time and money.
Hewlett-Packard and National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s HP Apollo supercomputing platform approaches HPC from an entirely new perspective as the system is cooled directly with warm water. This is done through a “dry-disconnect” cooling concept that has been implemented with the simple but efficient use of heat pipes. Unlike cooling fans, which are designed for maximum load, the heat pipes can be optimized by administrators.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s DUCCS is ultra-efficient software that utilizes highly parallel chaotic map computations to quickly (in a few minutes) and efficiently detect component faults in computing units, memory elements and interconnects of hybrid CPU-GPU computing systems.
In 2012, more than 85 million computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in the U.S. Of these, 16% were thoracic scans. Up to now, this has been done manually and sequentially in what is a tedious, lengthy and error-prone process. Engineers at Siemens Corporate Technology and Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography have launched a new solution to save radiologists time and increase diagnostic confidence for thoracic bone assessment.
Research published in ACS Nano identifies a new type of sensor that could monitor body movement and advance the future of global health care. Although body motion sensors already exist in different forms, they have not been widely used due to their complexity and cost of production.
While it's becoming commonplace for patients to see the results of laboratory work electronically, a new Univ. of Michigan study suggests that many people may not be able to understand what those numbers mean. The research found that people with low comprehension of numerical concepts—or numeracy—and low literacy skills were less than half as likely to understand whether a result was inside or outside the reference ranges.
North Carolina State Univ. researchers have developed methods for electronically manipulating the flight muscles of moths and for monitoring the electrical signals moths use to control those muscles. The work opens the door to the development of remotely-controlled moths, or “biobots,” for use in emergency response.
The invention of fiber optics revolutionized the way we share information, allowing us to transmit data at volumes and speeds we’d only previously dreamed of. Now, electrical engineering researchers at the Univ. of Alberta are breaking another barrier, designing nano-optical cables small enough to replace the copper wiring on computer chips.