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A better method for making perovskite solar cells

March 16, 2015 2:33 pm | by Kevin Stacey, Brown Univ. | News | Comments

Research led by a Brown Univ. graduate student has revealed a new way to make light-absorbing perovskite films for use in solar cells. The new method involves a room-temperature solvent bath to create perovskite crystals, rather than the blast of heat used in current crystallization methods.

Symmetry matters in graphene growth

March 16, 2015 2:23 pm | by Mike Williams, Rice Univ. | News | Comments

What lies beneath growing islands of graphene is important to its properties, according to a new study led by Rice Univ. Scientists at Rice analyzed patterns of graphene grown in a furnace via chemical vapor deposition. They discovered that the geometric relationship between graphene and the substrate, the underlying material on which carbon assembles atom by atom, determines how the island shapes emerge.

Real-time holographic displays one step closer to reality

March 16, 2015 12:11 pm | by Sarah Collins, Univ. of Cambridge | News | Comments

Real-time dynamic holographic displays, long the realm of science fiction, could be one step closer to reality, after researchers from the Univ. of Cambridge developed a new type of pixel element that enables far greater control over displays at the level of individual pixels.

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Nano piano’s lullaby could mean storage breakthrough

March 16, 2015 10:52 am | by William Bowman, Univ. of Illinois | News | Comments

Researchers from the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated the first-ever recording of optically encoded audio onto a non-magnetic plasmonic nanostructure, opening the door to multiple uses in informational processing and archival storage.

New clues from the dawn of the solar system

March 16, 2015 9:31 am | by Daniel Stolte, Univ. of Arizona Communications | News | Comments

A research group in the Univ. of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory has found evidence in meteorites that hint at the discovery of a previously unknown region within the swirling disk of dust and gas known as the protoplanetary disk, which gave rise to the planets in our solar system.

Finding fault: New information may help understand earthquakes

March 16, 2015 8:58 am | by Larry Rivais, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst | News | Comments

New modeling and analyses of fault geometry in the Earth's crust by geoscientist Michele Cooke and colleagues at the Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst are advancing knowledge about fault development in regions where one geologic plate slides past or over another, such as along California's San Andreas Fault and the Denali Fault in central Alaska.

Maps predict strength of structures

March 16, 2015 7:36 am | by Mike Williams, Rice Univ. | Videos | Comments

Mother-of-pearl, the iridescent layer in the shells of some mollusks, inspired a Rice Univ. study that will help scientists and engineers judge the ultimate strength, stiffness and toughness of composite materials for anything from nanoscale electronics to buildings.

New technology may double radio frequency data capacity

March 13, 2015 3:34 pm | by Holy Evarts, Columbia Univ. School of Engineering and Applied Science | News | Comments

A team of Columbia Engineering researchers has invented a technology, full-duplex radio integrated circuits (ICs), that can be implemented in nanoscale CMOS to enable simultaneous transmission and reception at the same frequency in a wireless radio. Up to now, this has been thought to be impossible: transmitters and receivers either work at different times or at the same time but at different frequencies.

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How plants regulate vitamin C production

March 13, 2015 3:17 pm | by Queensland Univ. of Technology | News | Comments

A Queensland Univ. of Technology scientist has unraveled the way in which plants regulate their levels of vitamin C, the vitamin essential for preventing iron deficiency anemia and conditions such as scurvy. Prof. Roger Hellens has discovered the mechanism plants use to regulate the levels of vitamin C in each of their cells in response to the environment.

Fusion researchers make breakthrough on ELMs mitigation

March 13, 2015 2:36 pm | by John Greenwald, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory | News | Comments

Researchers from General Atomics and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory have made a major breakthrough in understanding how potentially damaging heat bursts inside a fusion reactor can be controlled. Scientists performed the experiments on the DIII-D National Fusion Facility, a tokamak operated by General Atomics in San Diego.

Tips for Successful LC-MS: Keep the Sample In Focus

March 13, 2015 2:26 pm | by Vivek Joshi, PhD, EMD Millipore | Articles | Comments

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is taking over as an analytical technique of choice in diverse fields. While a LC-MS analyst may be tempted to rely on the most commonly used sample prep techniques, columns and mobile phases in his/her field, we show successful LC-MS demands these workflow elements be chosen with the physico-chemical properties of the analyte in mind.

Mercury surface composition maps illuminate planet’s history

March 13, 2015 1:59 pm | by Carnegie Institute of Science | News | Comments

Two new papers from members of the MESSENGER Science Team provide global-scale maps of Mercury’s surface chemistry that reveal previously unrecognized geochemical terranes, large regions that have compositions distinct from their surroundings. The presence of these large terranes has important implications for the history of the planet.

Researchers address mysteries behind anti-wear motor oil additive

March 13, 2015 1:41 pm | by Evan Lerner, Univ. of Pennsylvania | News | Comments

The pistons in your car engine rub up against their cylinder walls thousands of times a minute; without lubrication in the form of motor oil, they and other parts of the engine would quickly wear away, causing engine failure. Motor oil contains chemical additives that extend how long engines can run without failure, but, despite decades of ubiquity, how such additives actually work to prevent this damage have remained a mystery.

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Bond and bond alike

March 13, 2015 11:35 am | by Jes Andersen, Univ. of Copenhagen | News | Comments

As with magnets and alternating current, positively charged molecules never aim for one another. Indeed, similarly charged poles are repelled. Nevertheless, a team from the Univ. of Copenhagen managed to become the first to bond positively charged phosphorus atoms with positively charged hydrogen ones. Their insight may prove pivotal to understanding how biologically important molecules such as DNA and proteins form properly.

Some habitable exoplanets could experience wildly unpredictable climates

March 13, 2015 11:28 am | by Peter Kelley, Univ. of Washington | News | Comments

As telescopes of ever-greater power scan the cosmos looking for life, knowing where to look, and where not to waste time looking, will be of great value. New research by Univ. of Washington astronomers describes possible planetary systems where a gravitational nudge from one planet with just the right orbital configuration and tilt could have a mild to devastating effect on the orbit and climate of another, possibly habitable world.

Researchers discover new catalysts to generate renewable fuels

March 13, 2015 11:17 am | by Brita Bell, Communications Office, Yale Univ. | News | Comments

For the last seven years, Yale Univ. graduate student Staff Sheehan has been working on splitting water. Now, a paper published in Nature Communications reveals how one of the methods he and his team have uncovered for this process, using a specific iridium species as a water oxidation catalyst, could aid in the development of renewable fuels.

Necklace can help track food intake

March 13, 2015 11:05 am | by Bill Kisliuk, Univ. of California, Los Angeles | Videos | Comments

A sophisticated necklace developed by researchers at the Univ. of California, Los Angeles, can monitor food and drink intake, which could help wearers track and improve their dietary habits. The inventors of the WearSens device say it could help battle obesity, heart disease, diabetes and other problems related to nutrition.

Unlocking the mysteries of wound healing

March 13, 2015 9:49 am | by Daniel Stolte, Univ. of Arizona Communications | News | Comments

Researchers at the Univ. of Arizona have discovered what causes and regulates collective cell migration, one of the most universal but least understood biological processes in all living organisms. The findings shed light on the mechanisms of cell migration, particularly in the wound healing process. The results also represent a major advancement for regenerative medicine.

Hubble observations suggest underground ocean on Jupiter’s largest moon

March 13, 2015 8:46 am | by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center | News | Comments

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has the best evidence yet for an underground saltwater ocean on Ganymede, Jupiter's largest moon. The subterranean ocean is thought to have more water than all the water on Earth's surface. Identifying liquid water is crucial in the search for habitable worlds beyond Earth and for the search of life as we know it.

Unique proteins found in heat-loving organisms bind well to plant matter

March 13, 2015 8:36 am | by Mick Kulikowski, North Carolina State Univ. News Services | News | Comments

Unique proteins newly discovered in heat-loving bacteria are more than capable of attaching themselves to plant cellulose, possibly paving the way for more efficient methods of converting plant matter into biofuels. The unusual proteins, called tapirins, bind tightly to cellulose, a key structural component of plant cell walls, enabling these bacteria to break down cellulose.

New way to measure superconducting fluctuations

March 13, 2015 8:27 am | by Louise Lerner, Argonne National Laboratory | News | Comments

A study published by researchers at Argonne National Laboratory provides theoretical evidence for a new effect that may lead to a way of measuring the exact temperature at which superconductivity kicks in and shed light on the poorly understood properties of superconducting materials above this temperature.

LLNL deploys world’s highest peak-power laser diode arrays

March 13, 2015 8:17 am | by Breanna Bishop, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | News | Comments

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has installed and commissioned the highest peak power laser diode arrays in the world, representing total peak power of 3.2 MW. The diode arrays are a key component of the High-Repetition-Rate Advanced Petawatt Laser System (HAPLS), which is currently under construction at LLNL.

Molecule-making machine simplifies complex chemistry

March 13, 2015 8:05 am | by Liz Ahlberg, Physical Sciences Editor, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | News | Comments

A new molecule-making machine could do for chemistry what 3-D printing did for engineering: Make it fast, flexible and accessible to anyone. Chemists at the Univ. of Illinois built the machine to assemble complex small molecules at the click of a mouse, like a 3-D printer at the molecular level. The automated process has the potential to greatly speed up and enable new drug development and other technologies that rely on small molecules.

Researchers manipulate gold-coated nanoparticles with lasers

March 12, 2015 11:56 am | by Ludwig Maximillian Univ. of Munich | News | Comments

Tiny glass nanospheres coated on one side with a very fine gold film: Ludwig Maximillian Univ. of Munich scientists have shown that particles modified in this way can be moved about with high precision using laser beams, creating an optically controlled micro-elevator.

Engineers create chameleon-like artificial “skin”

March 12, 2015 11:39 am | by Jack Hanley, The Optical Society | News | Comments

Borrowing a trick from nature, engineers from the Univ. of California at Berkeley have created an incredibly thin, chameleon-like material that can be made to change color by simply applying a minute amount of force. This new material-of-many-colors offers intriguing possibilities for an entirely new class of display technologies, color-shifting camouflage and sensors.

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