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New method creates scrolling nanosheets on demand

October 6, 2014 2:37 pm | by Poncie Rutsch, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology | News | Comments

Nanoparticles could revolutionize the medical industry, but they must first target a specific region in the body, be trackable, and perform their function at the right moment. Researchers in Japan have made progress in this direction with a new type of nanomaterial: the nanosheet. Specifically, they have designed a strong, stable and optically traceable smart 2-D material that responds to pH, or the acidity or basicity of its environment.

Nanoparticles break the symmetry of light

October 6, 2014 12:59 pm | News | Comments

At the Vienna Univ. of Technology gold nanoparticles have been coupled to a glass fiber. The particles emit light into the fiber in such a way that it does not travel in both directions, as one would expect. Instead, the light can be directed either to the left or to the right. This became possible by employing the spin-orbit coupling of light, creating a new kind of optical switch that has the potential to revolutionize nanophotonics.

Liquid DNA behind virus attacks

October 6, 2014 11:48 am | News | Comments

According to two recent studies, viruses can convert their DNA from solid to fluid form, explaining how viruses manage to eject DNA into the cells of their victims. The researchers in one study, which focused on herpes infections, say the discovery was surprising: No one was previously aware of the “phase transition” from solid to fluid form in virus DNA.

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Atmospheric chemistry hinges on better physics model

October 6, 2014 11:44 am | News | Comments

An improved theoretical model of photoabsorption of nitrous oxide, developed by scientists in Malaysia, could shed light on the atmospheric chemistry of ozone depletion. The new theoretical work unveils, through improvements in established calculation approaches, the actual dynamic of stratospheric catalytic ozone destruction.

A glimpse into the 3-D brain

October 6, 2014 11:39 am | News | Comments

People who wish to know how memory works are forced to take a glimpse into the brain. They can now do so without bloodshed: Researchers have developed a new method for creating 3-D models of memory-relevant brain structures. The approach is unique because it enables automatic calculation of the neural interconnections in the brain on the basis of their position inside the space and their projection directions.

Fast, cheap nanomanufacturing

October 6, 2014 9:19 am | by Larry Hardesty, MIT | News | Comments

Arrays of tiny conical tips that eject ionized materials are being made at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The technology, which harnesses electrostatic forces, has a range of promising applications, such as spinning out nanofibers for use in “smart” textiles or propulsion systems for fist-sized “nanosatellites.” The latest prototype array that generates 10 times the ion current per emitter that previous arrays did.

Google Glass gets speech-to-text update

October 6, 2014 8:20 am | by Jason Maderer, Georgia Institute of Technology | Videos | Comments

A team of Georgia Institute of Technology researchers has created speech-to-text software for Google Glass that helps hard-of-hearing users with everyday conversations. A hard-of-hearing person wears Glass while a second person speaks directly into a smartphone. The speech is converted to text, sent to Glass and displayed on its heads-up display.

Scientists develop barcoding tools for stem cells

October 6, 2014 8:15 am | News | Comments

A 7-year-project to develop a barcoding and tracking system for tissue stem cells has revealed previously unrecognized features of normal blood production: New data from Harvard Stem Cell Institute scientists at Boston Children's Hospital suggests, surprisingly, that the billions of blood cells that we produce each day are made not by blood stem cells, but rather their less pluripotent descendants, called progenitor cells.

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A protein approach to halve and to whole

October 6, 2014 8:12 am | by Mike Williams, Rice Univ. | News | Comments

Rice Univ. scientists have developed a plug-and-play approach to detect interactions between proteins they say could greatly improve understanding of basic biological functions. The Rice team, in collaboration with Baylor College of Medicine, split and added sticky tags to fluorescent proteins that become biosensors when inserted into living cells.

Untangling how cables coil

October 6, 2014 7:57 am | by Jennifer Chu, MIT News Office | Videos | Comments

The world’s fiber-optic network spans more than 550,000 miles of undersea cable that transmits Email, Websites and other packets of data between continents, all at the speed of light. A rip or tangle in any part of this network can significantly slow telecommunications around the world. Now, engineers have developed a method that predicts the pattern of coils and tangles that a cable may form when deployed onto a rigid surface.

Online resource provides free tools, simulations for composite materials

October 3, 2014 11:59 am | News | Comments

Individuals in industrial associations, educational institutions and government organizations who are interested in composites, or materials made from constituent materials with different physical or chemical properties, now have free, 24/7 access to simulation tools through an online community with offices in the Purdue Research Park.

Imaging system obtains 12 times more information than the human eye

October 3, 2014 11:41 am | News | Comments

Researchers in Spain and Italy have designed a multispectral imaging system capable of obtaining information from a total of 36 color channels, which is up to twelve times more color information than the human eye and conventional cameras, which have three color image sensors. This important scientific development will facilitate the easy capture of multispectral images in real time.

Study: Surfactants do not harm the environment

October 3, 2014 11:03 am | by Janne Hansen, Aarhus Univ. | News | Comments

You can brush your teeth, and wash yourself and your clothes with a clear conscience. The most common soaps, shampoos and detergents actually pose a minimal risk to the environment. This is the conclusion of a comprehensive survey that covers more than 250 scientific studies over several decades.

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Research shows how giant clams harness the sun

October 3, 2014 9:39 am | News | Comments

Beneath the waves, many creatures sport iridescent structures that rival what scientists can make in the laboratory. A research team has now shown how giant clams use these structures to thrive, operating as exceedingly efficient, living greenhouses that grow symbiotic algae as a source of food. This understanding could have implications for alternative energy research, paving the way for new solar panels or improved ways to grow biofuel.

Researchers pinpoint mechanism for aroma formation in wine

October 3, 2014 9:35 am | News | Comments

The majority of wines are produced from around 20 different types of grape, all of which have their own typical aroma. This is due to the terpenes, a diverse category of chemical substances including cholesterol and estrogen. Scientists have now identified two enzymes that determine the terpene content, and thus the aroma intensity, of grapes. The findings could play an important role in the future development of grape varieties.

A closer look at the perfect fluid

October 3, 2014 9:30 am | by Kate Greene, Berkeley Lab | News | Comments

By combining data from two high-energy accelerators, nuclear scientists from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and colleagues have refined the measurement of a remarkable property of exotic matter known as quark-gluon plasma. The findings reveal new aspects of the ultra-hot, “perfect fluid” that give clues to the state of the young universe just microseconds after the big bang.

Undergrad helps develop method to detect water on Mars

October 3, 2014 9:25 am | by Eric Sorensen, Washington State Univ. | Videos | Comments

Washington State University undergraduate Kellie Wall, 21, recently looked for evidence that water influenced crystal formation in basalt, the dark volcanic rock that covers most of eastern Washington and Oregon. She then compared this with volcanic rock observations made by the rover Curiosity on Mars’ Gale Crater, inventing a new method for detecting water on Mars.

Making oxygen before life

October 3, 2014 9:17 am | News | Comments

Over the past 40 years, researchers have thought that there must have been a small amount of oxygen in the atmosphere of early Earth to help give rise to plant life. But oxygen reacts aggressively with other compounds and disappears without a continuous source, so where did this abiotic, or “non-life”, oxygen come from? Chemists in California have now shown how ultraviolet light can split carbon dioxide to form oxygen in one step.

Batteries included: A solar cell that stores its own power

October 3, 2014 9:07 am | by Pam Frost Gorder, Ohio State Univ. | News | Comments

The world’s first “solar battery”, invented by researchers at Ohio State Univ., is a battery and a solar cell combined into one hybrid device. Key to the innovation is a mesh solar panel, which allows air to enter the battery, and a special process for transferring electrons between the solar panel and the battery electrode. Inside the device, light and oxygen enable different parts of the chemical reactions that charge the battery.

Health officials work to contain Ebola virus in U.S.

October 3, 2014 4:35 am | by Lauran Neergaard - AP Medical Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

Texas health officials have confined four people to their home, under guard, after they had close contact with an Ebola patient hospitalized in Dallas, as disease detectives work to make sure the deadly virus doesn't spread in the U.S. Five things to know about containing the virus: 1. WHY ORDER...

Creating nanostructures using simple stamps

October 2, 2014 1:31 pm | News | Comments

Nanostructures of virtually any possible shape can now be made using a combination of techniques developed to exploit the unique properties of so-called perovskites. The group based in the Netherlands, developed a pulsed laser deposition technique to create patterns in ultra thin layers, one atomic layer at a time. The perovskites’ crystal structure is undamaged by this soft lithography technique, maintaining electrical conductivity.

A new approach to on-chip quantum computing

October 2, 2014 1:17 pm | News | Comments

Commercial devices capable of encrypting information in unbreakable codes exist today, thanks to recent quantum optics advances, especially the generation of photon pairs. Now, an international team is introducing a new method to achieve a different type of photon pair source that fits into the tiny space of a computer chip. The team’s method generates “mixed up” photon pairs from devices that are less than one square millimeter in area.

Study: Lift weights, improve your memory

October 2, 2014 9:21 am | Videos | Comments

A new Georgia Institute of Technology study shows that an intense workout of as little as 20 min can enhance episodic memory, also known as long-term memory for previous events, by about 10% in healthy young adults. The research isn’t the first to find that exercise can improve memory. But the study took a few new approaches, including testing memory after just single period of exercise.

NIH awards UC Berkeley $7.2 million to advance brain initiative

October 2, 2014 8:28 am | by Robert Sanders, UC Berkeley | News | Comments

The National Institutes of Health this week announced its first research grants through President Barack Obama’s BRAIN Initiative, including three awards to the Univ. of California, Berkeley, totaling nearly $7.2 million over three years. The projects are among 58 funded in this initial wave of NIH grants, involving 100 researchers and a total of $46 million in fiscal year 2014 dollars alone.

Research confirms controversial Darwin theory of “jump dispersal”

October 2, 2014 8:22 am | News | Comments

More than one hundred and fifty years ago, Charles Darwin hypothesized that species could cross oceans and other vast distances on vegetation rafts, icebergs, or in the case of plant seeds, in the plumage of birds. Though many were skeptical of Darwin's "jump dispersal" idea and instead supported the idea of the use of land bridges, a new computational method now suggests that Darwin might have been correct.

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