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NASA's Maven spacecraft enters Mars orbit

September 22, 2014 10:26 am | by Marcia Dunn, AP Aerospace Writer | News | Comments

The robotic explorer Maven successfully slipped into orbit around Mars late Sunday night. Now the real work begins for the $671 million mission, the first dedicated to studying the Martian upper atmosphere and the latest step in NASA's bid to send astronauts to Mars in the 2030s. Researchers hope to learn where all the red planet's water went, along with the carbon dioxide that once comprised an atmosphere thick enough to hold moist clouds.

China, U.S., India push world carbon emissions up

September 22, 2014 9:42 am | by Seth Borenstein, AP Science Writer | News | Comments

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Engineers call for national approach to flooding

September 22, 2014 9:07 am | by Geoff Mulvihill, Associated Press | News | Comments

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Advanced molecular “sieves” could be used for carbon capture

September 18, 2014 12:33 pm | News | Comments

Researchers from the Univ. of Cambridge have developed advanced molecular synthetic membranes, or “sieves”, which could be used to filter carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. The sieves were made by heating microporous polymers using low levels of oxygen which, produces a tougher and far more selective membrane that is still relatively flexible.

Boosting global corn yields depends on improving nutrient balance

September 18, 2014 7:40 am | by Natalie van Hoose, Purdue Univ. | News | Comments

Ensuring that corn absorbs the right balance of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is crucial to increasing global yields, a Purdue and Kansas State Univ. study finds. A review of data from more than 150 studies from the U.S. and other regions showed that high yields were linked to production systems in which corn plants took up key nutrients at specific ratios.

Sampling Methods for Microanalysis

September 17, 2014 11:48 am | by Mary L. Stellmack, McCrone Associates Inc. | McCrone Associates, Inc. | Articles | Comments

In order to identify contaminants in industrial products, it’s sometimes necessary to send samples of the contaminated material to a laboratory for analysis. The choice of sampling method and the selection of a shipping container are critical to ensure that a representative sample is obtained, and no additional foreign material (FM) is added to the sample during transport to the laboratory.

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Early Earth less hellish than previously thought

September 16, 2014 7:53 am | by David Salisbury, Vanderbilt Univ. | News | Comments

Conditions on Earth for the first 500 million years after it formed may have been surprisingly similar to the present day, complete with oceans, continents and active crustal plates. This alternate view of Earth’s first geologic eon, called the Hadean, has gained substantial new support from the first detailed comparison of zircon crystals that formed more than 4 billion years ago with those formed contemporaneously in Iceland.

Polonium’s most stable isotope gets revised half-life measurement

September 12, 2014 9:14 am | by NIST | News | Comments

Scientists at NIST have determined that polonium-209, the longest-lived isotope of this radioactive heavy element, has a half-life about 25% longer than the previously determined value, which had been in use for decades. The new NIST measurements could affect geophysical studies such as the dating of sediment samples from ocean and lake floors.

Microscopic diamonds suggest cosmic impact responsible for major period of climate

September 11, 2014 4:53 pm | News | Comments

A new study published in The Journal of Geology provides support for the theory that a cosmic impact event over North America some 13,000 years ago caused a major period of climate change known as the Younger Dryas stadial, or “Big Freeze.”  The key to the mystery of the Big Freeze lies in nanodiamonds scattered across Europe, North America, and portions of South America.

The ozone hole has stabilized, but some questions remain

September 11, 2014 4:50 pm | News | Comments

The production and consumption of chemical substances threatening the ozone layer has been regulated since 1987 in the Montreal Protocol. Eight international expert reports have since been published, the most recent of which was presented on Sept. 10 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. Model calculations reveal that by 2050 the ozone layer may return to its 1980 levels.

Seismic gap may be filled by an earthquake near Istanbul

September 11, 2014 7:56 am | by Jennifer Chu, MIT News Office | News | Comments

When a segment of a major fault line goes quiet, it can mean one of two things: The “seismic gap” may simply be inactive, or the segment may be a source of potential earthquakes, quietly building tension over decades until an inevitable seismic release. Researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Turkey have found evidence for both types of behavior on different segments of the North Anatolian Fault.

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More health symptoms reported near “fracking” natural gas extraction

September 10, 2014 8:07 am | by Jim Shelton, Yale Univ. | News | Comments

A Yale Univ.-led study has found a greater prevalence of health symptoms reported among residents living close to natural gas wells, including those drilled by hydraulic fracturing. The researchers conducted a random survey of 492 people in 180 households with ground-fed water wells in southwestern Pennsylvania, where natural gas extraction activity is significant.

Textbook theory behind volcanoes may be wrong

September 9, 2014 7:57 am | by Marcus Woo, Caltech | News | Comments

In the typical textbook picture, volcanoes, such as those that are forming the Hawaiian islands, erupt when magma gushes out as narrow jets from deep inside Earth. But that picture is wrong, according to a new study from researchers at Caltech and the Univ. of Miami. New seismology data are now confirming that such narrow jets don't actually exist.

Scientists apply biomedical technique to reveal changes in body of the ocean

September 9, 2014 7:33 am | News | Comments

For decades, doctors have developed methods to diagnose how different types of cells and systems in the body are functioning. Now scientists have adapted an emerging biomedical technique to study the vast body of the ocean. In recent work they have demonstrated that they can identify and measure proteins in the ocean, revealing how single-celled marine organisms and ocean ecosystems operate.

Sun-powered desalination for villages in India

September 8, 2014 7:51 am | by David L. Chandler, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Around the world, there’s more salty groundwater than fresh, drinkable groundwater. For example, 60% of India is underlain by salty water. Now an analysis by Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers shows that a different desalination technology called electrodialysis, powered by solar panels, could provide enough clean, palatable drinking water to supply the needs of a typical village.

SAP Conference for Enterprise Portfolio & Project Management

September 5, 2014 2:26 pm | Events

Join T.A. Cook and SAP, at the annual SAP Conference for Enterprise Portfolio and Project Management (PPM), taking place in Coral Gables on November 11-13, 2014. At this event you will hear the very latest news, innovation, and best practices for enterprise portfolio and project management that will empower businesses to make better informed decisions.

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Sequencing of fish reveals diverse molecular mechanisms underlying evolution

September 5, 2014 9:49 am | by John Toon, Georgia Institute of Technology | News | Comments

Researchers have sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of five species of African cichlid fishes and uncovered a variety of features that enabled the fishes to thrive in new habitats and ecological niches within the Great Lakes of East Africa. The study helps explain the genetic basis for the incredible diversity among cichlid fishes and provides new information about vertebrate evolution.

Study links polar vortex chills to melting sea ice

September 3, 2014 9:02 am | by Seth Borenstein, AP Science Writer | News | Comments

Remember the polar vortex, the huge mass of Arctic air that can plunge much of the U.S. into the deep freeze? You might have to get used to it. A new study says that as the world gets warmer, parts of North America, Europe and Asia could see more frequent and stronger visits of that cold air. Researchers say that's because of shrinking ice in the seas off Russia.

Extinctions during human era worse than thought

September 3, 2014 8:29 am | by David Orenstein, Brown Univ. | News | Comments

It’s hard to comprehend how bad the current rate of species extinction around the world has become without knowing what it was before people came along. The newest estimate is that the pre-human rate was 10 times lower than scientists had thought, which means that the current level is 10 times worse.

Mystery of Death Valley's moving rocks solved

September 2, 2014 8:45 am | News | Comments

For years scientists have theorized about how large rocks, some weighing hundreds of pounds, zigzag across Racetrack Playa in Death Valley National Park, leaving long trails etched in the earth. Now two researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the Univ. of California, San Diego, have photographed these "sailing rocks" being blown by light winds across the former lake bed.

Study shows where on the planet new roads should and should not go

September 2, 2014 8:39 am | News | Comments

An ambitious study has created a “global roadmap” for prioritizing road building across the planet, to try to balance the competing demands of development and environmental protection. The map has two components: an “environmental-values” layer that estimates that natural importance of ecosystems and a “road-benefits” layer that estimates the potential for increased agriculture production via new or improved roads. 

Cool roofs in China can save energy, reduce emissions

August 28, 2014 8:49 am | by Julie Chao, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

Working with Chinese researchers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has conducted the first comprehensive study of cool roofs in China and concluded that they would be effective in substantially reducing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in climate zones with hot summers.

Snowfall in a warmer world

August 27, 2014 2:26 pm | by Jennifer Chu, MIT News Office | News | Comments

If ever there were a silver lining to global warming, it might be the prospect of milder winters. After all, it stands to reason that a warmer climate would generate less snow. But a new Massachusetts Institute of Technology study suggests that you shouldn’t put your shovels away just yet.

Yellowstone super-eruption would send ash across North America

August 27, 2014 12:22 pm | News | Comments

According to a new study, in the unlikely event of a volcanic super-eruption at Yellowstone National Park, the northern Rocky Mountains would be blanketed in meters of ash, and millimeters would be deposited as far away as New York City, Los Angeles and Miami. An improved computer model finds that the hypothetical, large eruption would create a distinctive kind of ash cloud known as an umbrella, which expands evenly in all directions.

2014 R&D 100 Award Winners

August 27, 2014 9:53 am | Award Winners

Introducing R&D Magazine's 2014 R&D 100 Award winners. The 2014 R&D 100 Award Winners are listed below in alphabetical order by the name of the primary developer company.

Composition of Earth’s mantle revisited

August 27, 2014 8:31 am | by Louise Lerner, Argonne National Laboratory | News | Comments

Research published last week in Science suggested that the makeup of the Earth's lower mantle, which makes up the largest part of the Earth by volume, is significantly different than previously thought. According to scientists, the work performed at Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Photon Source will have a significant impact on our understanding of the lower mantle.

Study: Earth can sustain more terrestrial plant growth than previously thought

August 27, 2014 8:00 am | by Diana Yates, Life Sciences Editor Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | News | Comments

A new analysis suggests the planet can produce much more land-plant biomass than previously thought. The study, reported in Environmental Science and Technology, recalculates the theoretical limit of terrestrial plant productivity, and finds that it is much higher than many current estimates allow.

Pacific plate shrinking as it cools

August 27, 2014 7:47 am | by Mike Williams, Rice Univ. | News | Comments

The tectonic plate that dominates the Pacific “Ring of Fire” is not as rigid as many scientists assume, according to researchers at Rice Univ. and the Univ. of Nevada. The researchers have determined that cooling of the lithosphere makes some sections of the Pacific plate contract horizontally at faster rates than others and cause the plate to deform.

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