Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have combined ultra-fast time-resolved experimental measurements with theory to reveal how an explosive responds to a high-impact shock. The work involved advances in both ultrafast experimental shock wave methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation techniques, and the combination of experiment and simulation is a milestone in understanding chemical initiation and detonation.
Networks of nanometer-scale machines offer exciting potential applications in medicine, industry...
A research team in France has invented an adhesion...
One of the most difficult hurdles in adapting...
Hipster, surfer or biker? Computers may soon be able to tell the difference: Scientists in California are developing an algorithm that uses group pictures to determine to which of these groups, or urban tribes, you belong. So far, the algorithm is 48% accurate on average, much better than chance but not yet to level of humans.
Some people think that university researchers are so occupied with their laboratories that they've lost sight of the world outside the ivory tower of academia. I would refer those people to Logan Maxwell, a researcher at North Carolina State Univ. who has developed a coffee mug that will keep your coffee hot—but not too hot—for hours at a time. And what could be more practical than that?
Researchers have found a new way to probe molecules and atoms with an x-ray laser, setting off cascading bursts of light that reveal precise details of what is going on inside. The technique may allow scientists to see details of chemical reactions and home in on the properties of specific elements within complex molecules in a way not possible before.
The NSA chief said Wednesday he knows of no better way his agency can help protect the U.S. from foreign threats than with spy programs that collect phone and Internet records from around the world. Pleading with the Senate Judiciary Committee to not abolish the National Security Agency's bulk-collection programs, Gen. Keith Alexander warned that global threats are growing that pose what he called "an unacceptable risk" to America.
An atmospheric peculiarity the Earth shares with Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune is likely common to billions of planets, Univ. of Washington astronomers have found, and knowing that may help in the search for potentially habitable worlds. The paper uses basic physics to show why this happens, and suggests that tropopauses are probably common to billions of thick-atmosphere planets and moons throughout the galaxy.
A unique solar panel design made with a new ceramic material points the way to potentially providing sustainable power cheaper, more efficiently, and requiring less manufacturing time. It also reaches a four-decade-old goal of discovering a bulk photovoltaic material that can harness energy from visible and infrared light, not just ultraviolet light.
Rice Univ. bioengineers have developed a hydrogel scaffold for craniofacial bone tissue regeneration that starts as a liquid, solidifies into a gel in the body and liquefies again for removal. The material developed in a Rice laboratory is a soluble liquid at room temperature that can be injected to the point of need. At body temperature, it turns into a gel to help direct the formation of new bone to replace that damaged by injury.
Jupiter’s moon Europa features an intricate network of cracks in its icy surface. This unusual pattern is particularly pronounced around the equator. Scientists performing modeling studies on the potential marine currents below this ice layer have discovered that, near Europa’s equator, warmer water rises from deep within the moon.
There are examples of art imitating nature all around us, from Monet to Chihuly, but when physicist Latika Menon peered under the electron microscope last fall, she discovered the exact opposite in gallium nitride nanowires that bore an uncanny resemblance to artistic pots found in her native India. Menon has begun to control these shapes, which will make the nanowires significantly more promising for use in advanced devices.
Gaming could become much more realistic with new technology developed at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab (CSAIL) that permits highly accurate, 3-D motion tracking. The new system, dubbed “WiTrack”, uses radio signals to track a person through walls and obstructions, pinpointing her 3-D location to within 10 to 20 cm, about the width of an adult hand.
British Prime Minister David Cameron says he hopes to kick-start an international effort to find a cure or effective treatment for dementia by 2025. At a one-day summit on dementia hosted by the U.K., Cameron declared that discovering a cure or treatment for dementia is "within our grasp." The Group of Eight health and science ministers signed a declaration agreeing to identify "a cure or disease-modifying therapy for dementia" by 2025.
Figuring that if some is good, more must be better, researchers have been trying to pack more graphene, a supermaterial, into structural composites. Collaborative research led by Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln materials engineers discovered that, in this case, less is more. The team learned that using a small amount of graphene oxide as a template improves carbon nanomaterials which, in turn, promises to improve composite materials.
Stanford Univ. scientists may have solved the mystery of what drives a type of earthquake that occurs deep within the Earth and accounts for one in four quakes worldwide. Known as intermediate-depth earthquakes, these temblors originate farther down inside the Earth than shallow earthquakes, which take place in the uppermost layer of the Earth's surface, called the crust.
Although researchers have determined the ages of rocks from other planetary bodies, the actual experiments have been done on Earth. Now, for the first time, researchers have successfully determined the age of a Martian rock with experiments performed on Mars. The work could not only help in understanding the geologic history of Mars but also aid in the search for evidence of ancient life on the planet.
Blood clots play an unexpected role in protecting the body from the deadly effects of bacteria by absorbing bacterial toxins, researchers have found. Even with modern antibiotics, septic shock from bacterial infections afflicts about 300,000 people a year in the U.S., with a mortality rate of 30 to 50%. Septic shock is caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which release a toxin called lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin.
Solar cells made with low-cost, nontoxic quantum dots can achieve unprecedented longevity and efficiency, according to a study by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sharp Corp. The reported solar cells are based on nontoxic quantum dots. These dots are based on copper indium selenide sulfide and are rigorously optimized to reduce charge-carrier losses from surface defects and to provide the most complete coverage of the solar spectrum.
By applying pressure to a semiconductor, researchers have been able to transform a semiconductor into a “topological insulator” (TI), an intriguing state of matter in which a material’s interior is insulating but its surfaces or edges are conducting with unique electrical properties. This is the first time that researchers have used pressure to gradually “tune” a material into the TI state.
For some microbes, the motto for growth is not so much “every cell for itself,” but rather, “all for one and one for all.” Researchers have found that cells in a bacterial colony grow in a way that benefits the community as a whole. That is, while an individual cell may divide in the presence of plentiful resources to benefit itself, when a cell is a member of a larger colony, it may choose instead to grow in a more cooperative fashion.
As part of its R&D 100 Awards program, the editors of R&D Magazine hold an annual roundtable discussion that addresses outstanding trends and issues in research and development. This year, the Industry Executives’ Roundtable, held Nov. 7, 2013, in Orlando, Fla., focused on industrial research, featuring executives from several organizations that invest heavily in R&D efforts. These organizations all won 2013 R&D 100 Awards.
In the late 1980s, when setting up his first laboratory, an asst. prof. of chemistry at the Univ. of South Carolina had a conversation with a scientist at IBM Yorktown, Avi Aviram, who had recently authored a paper speculating on a new type of perpendicularly shaped molecule that, if artificially created and equipped with active sensing points, could be used as a molecular switch for computing.
The first LCD television was invented in 1972 at Westinghouse in Pennsylvania. Like many important inventions, it didn’t become a common sight in the average home for several decades. It took the combined efforts of many researchers and several corporations to create a display of acceptable quality in the late 1990s. In the early 2000s, another innovation helped set the stage for the proliferation of LCD displays: Multilayer Optical Film.
In early March, in a rural Mississippi hospital, an infant was born to an HIV-infected mother. The chances of an infant contracting HIV from an infected mother not receiving antiretroviral treatment is around 25% in the U.S., and this child was on the wrong end of that statistic. Dr. Deborah Persaud, a Johns Hopkins Children’s Center HIV expert, knew that meant this baby would only have a 50% chance of living past the age of nine years.
In January 2013, an assoc. prof of biomedical engineering at Columbia Univ., Samuel K. Sia, developed a lab-on-a-chip technology that not only checks a patient’s HIV status with a finger prick, it also synchronizes the results automatically and instantaneously with central health care records. The technology, developed in collaboration with OPKO Diagnostics and called mChip, performs all ELISA functions, and produces results within 15 min.
Fume hoods are a central component in most laboratories. Whether designing a new laboratory or renovating an existing one, architects are challenged to incorporate safety, reliability and sustainability. These same issues hold true for laboratory managers when thinking about updating their existing equipment.
Provider of flexible and affordable 3-D modeling software for engineers, SpaceClaim, has announced the launch of the 2014 edition of SpaceClaim Engineer. The new release maintains the familiar interface and workflow of the prior editions while combining tools for manufacturing, advances in file compatibility, performance speed gains and improved collaboration.
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