Analytical chemist, author and R&D Magazine’s longest-tenured columnist and contributing editor Frederic B. Jueneman passed away recently in his hometown of Newark, Calif. An industrial analytical chemist by trade, Jueneman’s columns, full of fresh and insightful ideas, earning a dedicated following among R&D’s readership.
The World Health Organization on Friday declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa to be an international public health emergency that requires an extraordinary response to stop its spread. It is the largest and longest outbreak ever recorded of Ebola, which has a death rate of about 50% and has so far killed at least 961 people. WHO declared similar emergencies for the swine flu pandemic in 2009 and for polio in May.
Some of the most damaging brain diseases can be traced to irregular blood delivery in the brain. Now, Stanford Univ. chemists have employed lasers and carbon nanotubes to capture an unprecedented look at blood flowing through a living brain. The technique was developed for mice but could one day be applied to humans, potentially providing vital information in the study of stroke and migraines.
These days, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) typically fly alone with a team of ground operators controlling their activities through teleoperation or waypoint-based routing. But one aircraft can only carry so many sensors, limiting its capabilities. That’s one reason why a fleet of autonomous aircraft can be better than one flying alone.
A Purdue Univ. study shows that Notch signaling, a key biological pathway tied to development and cell communication, also plays an important role in the onset of obesity and Type 2 diabetes, a discovery that offers new targets for treatment. The research team found that blocking Notch signaling in the fat tissue of mice caused white fat cells to transform into a "leaner" type of fat known as beige fat.
A fundamental chemical pathway that all plants use to create an essential amino acid needed by all animals to make proteins has now been traced to two groups of ancient bacteria. The pathway is also known for making hundreds of chemicals, including a compound that makes wood strong and the pigments that make red wine red.
The current Ebola crisis in West Africa is on pace to sicken more people than all other previous outbreaks of the disease combined, a U.S. health official said Thursday. Dr. Tom Frieden, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, told a congressional hearing that the outbreak is unprecedented in part because it's in a region of Africa that never has dealt with Ebola before.
A new survey released Wednesday by the Pew Research Center's Internet Project and Elon University's Imagining the Internet Center found that, when asked about the impact of artificial intelligence on jobs, nearly 1,900 experts and other respondents were divided over what to expect 11 years from now. Nearly as many people said robots would kill more jobs than they create as those who think they will create more jobs than they destroy.
Borrowing from the ancient Japanese art of origami, children's toys and even a touch of the "Transformers" movies, scientists and engineers at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have created self-assembling, paper robots. These complex machines transform themselves from little more than a sheet of paper and plastic into walking automatons.
Turning what seemed like a science fiction tale into reality, an unmanned probe swung alongside a comet on Wednesday after a 4-billion mile chase through outer space over the course of a decade. Europe's Rosetta probe will orbit and study the giant lump of dust and ice as it hurtles toward the sun and, if all goes according to plan, drop a lander onto the comet in the coming months.
For decades, scientists have been trying to use quantum systems for logical calculations, but implementing a system that manages superposition states is challenging. A team of researchers in Austria and Japan has now proposed a new architecture based on microscopic defects in diamond. They are convinced that the basic elements of their newly proposed architecture are better suited to be miniaturized, mass-produced and integrated on a chip.
Physicists at NIST have demonstrated a pas de deux of atomic ions that combines the fine choreography of dance with precise individual control. NIST’s ion duet is a component for a flexible quantum simulator that could be scaled up in size and configured to model quantum systems of a complexity that overwhelms traditional computer simulations.
Graphene has excellent biocompatibility thanks to its great flexibility and chemical durability, and its conducting properties suggest uses for prosthetic devices in humans. Physicists are now developing key components of an artificial retina made of graphene. These retina implants may one day serve as optical prostheses for blind people whose optical nerves are still intact.
Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer type in the United States. A new handheld device may help diagnosis and treatment efforts for the disease. It uses lasers and sound waves and is the first that can be used directly on a patient to accurately measure how deep a melanoma tumor extends into the skin.
For the first time, researchers have succeeded in "growing" single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) with a single predefined structure, and hence with identical electronic properties. The method involved self-assembly of tailor-made organic precursor molecules on a platinum surface. In the future, carbon nanotubes of this kind may be used in ultra-sensitive light detectors and ultra-small transistors.
A Florida State Univ. geography professor has shown that climate change may be playing a key role in the strength and frequency of tornadoes hitting the United States. though tornadoes are forming fewer days per year, they are forming at a greater density and strength than ever before. Instead of one or two forming on a given day in an area, there might be three or four occurring.
A team of economists including Esteban Rossi-Hansberg of Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs have developed a model that can measure the widespread effects of local industry fluctuations such as sudden closing of a major airline hub. Gauging the power of these fluctuations, or shocks, could be a useful tool when it comes to designing policies to manage past and future shocks.
Brain tumors fly under the radar of the body’s defense forces by coating their cells with extra amounts of a specific protein, new research at the Univ. of Michigan shows. The findings, made in mice and rats, show the key role of a protein called galectin-1 in some of the most dangerous brain tumors, called high grade malignant gliomas. The stealth approach lets the tumors hide until it’s too late for the body to defeat them.
Researchers at Yale School of Medicine have discovered a new drug compound that reverses the brain deficits of Alzheimer’s disease in an animal model. The compound, TC-2153, inhibits the negative effects of a protein called STtriatal-Enriched tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP), which is key to regulating learning and memory. These cognitive functions are impaired in Alzheimer’s.
Researchers at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have developed a laser-timing system that could allow scientists to take snapshots of electrons zipping around atoms and molecules. Taking timing to this new extreme of speed and accuracy at the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray laser will make it possible to see the formative stages of chemical reactions.
Sequencing the genomes of tumor cells has revealed thousands of mutations associated with cancer. One way to discover the role of these mutations is to breed a strain of mice that carry the genetic flaw—but breeding such mice is an expensive, time-consuming process. Now, Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers have found an alternative.
It's long been known that faulty BRCA genes greatly raise the risk for breast cancer. Now scientists say a more recently identified, less common gene can do the same. Mutations in the gene can make breast cancer up to nine times more likely to develop, an international team of researchers reports in the New England Journal of Medicine.
The use of an experimental drug to treat two Americans diagnosed with Ebola is raising ethical questions about who gets first access to unproven new therapies for the deadly disease. But some health experts fear debate over extremely limited doses will distract from tried-and-true measures to curb the growing outbreak.
The Facilities 450mm Consortium (F450C), a partnership of leading nanoelectronics facility companies guiding the effort to design and build the next-generation 450mm computer chip fabrication facilities, has announced it has again increased in size, naming Pfeiffer Vacuum as the twelfth member company to join the consortium.
MIT engineers have fabricated a new elastic material coated with microscopic, hairlike structures that tilt in response to a magnetic field. Depending on the field’s orientation, the microhairs can tilt to form a path through which fluid can flow; the material can even direct water upward, against gravity. Researchers say structures may be used in windows to wick away moisture.