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Gold nanoparticles show promise for early detection of heart attacks

January 15, 2015 12:29 pm | by New York Univ. | News | Comments

New York Univ. Polytechnic School of Engineering professors have been collaborating with researchers from Peking Univ. on a new test strip that is demonstrating great potential for the early detection of certain heart attacks. The new colloidal gold test strip can test for cardiac troponin I (cTn-I) detection.

Model analyzes water footprint of biofuels

January 15, 2015 12:03 pm | by Greg Cunningham, Argonne National Laboratory | News | Comments

A new version of an online tool created by Argonne National Laboratory will help biofuels developers gain a detailed understanding of water consumption of various types of feedstocks, aiding development of sustainable fuels that will reduce impact on limited water resources.

3-D displays without 3-D glasses

January 15, 2015 10:06 am | by Vienna Univ. of Technology | News | Comments

Public screenings have become an important part of major sports events. In the future, we will be able to enjoy them in 3-D, thanks to a new invention from Austrian scientists. A sophisticated laser system sends laser beams into different directions. Therefore, different pictures are visible from different angles. The angular resolution is so fine that the left eye is presented a different picture than the right one, creating a 3-D effect.

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“Smart windows” have potential to keep heat our, save energy

January 15, 2015 9:53 am | by American Chemical Society | News | Comments

Windows allow brilliant natural light to stream into homes and buildings. Along with light comes heat that, in warm weather, we often counter with energy-consuming air conditioning. Now scientists are developing a new kind of "smart window" that can block out heat when the outside temperatures rise. The advance could one day help consumers better conserve energy on hot days and reduce electric bills.

New tech keeps bacteria from sticking to surfaces

January 15, 2015 9:44 am | by Krishna Ramanujan, Cornell Univ. | News | Comments

Just as the invention of non-stick pans was a boon for chefs, a new type of nanoscale surface that bacteria can’t stick to holds promise for applications in the food processing, medical and even shipping industries. The technology uses an electrochemical process called anodization to create nanoscale pores that change the electrical charge and surface energy of a metal surface.

Artificial intelligence helps predict dangerous solar flares

January 15, 2015 9:32 am | by Leslie Willoughby, Stanford Univ. | News | Comments

Though scientists don’t completely understand what triggers solar flares, Stanford Univ. solar physicists Monica Bobra and Sebastien Couvidat have automated the analysis of those gigantic explosions. The method could someday provide advance warning to protect power grids and communication satellites.

Extending Einstein’s spooky action for use in quantum networks

January 15, 2015 9:19 am | by Lea Kivivali, Swinburne Univ. of Technology | News | Comments

An international team, including researchers from Swinburne Univ. of Technology, has demonstrated the 1935 Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen quantum mechanics paradox may be extended to more than two optical systems, paving the way for exploration of larger quantum networks. Quantum mechanics is the theory used to describe nature’s smallest systems, like atoms or photons.

2-D metamaterial surface manipulates light

January 15, 2015 9:02 am | by Penn State Univ. | News | Comments

A single layer of metallic nanostructures has been designed, fabricated and tested by a team of Penn State Univ. electrical engineers that can provide exceptional capabilities for manipulating light. This engineered surface, which consists of a periodic array of strongly coupled nanorod resonators, could improve systems that perform optical characterization in scientific devices, sensing or satellite communications.

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Mass animal die-offs may be increasing

January 15, 2015 8:08 am | by Bill Hathaway, Yale Univ. | News | Comments

Mass die-offs of animals may be increasing in frequency and in severity as well, according to a study of 727 mass mortality events since 1940. Despite the ecological importance of individual mass mortality events, in which a larger than normal number of individuals die within a population, little research has been conducted on patterns across mass mortality events.

New material, technique efficiently produce hydrogen, syngas fuel feedstock

January 15, 2015 8:00 am | by Matt Shipman, News Services, North Carolina State Univ. | News | Comments

A team of chemical engineering researchers has developed a technique that uses a new catalyst to convert methane and water into hydrogen and a fuel feedstock called syngas with the assistance of solar power. The catalytic material is more than three times more efficient at converting water into hydrogen gas than previous thermal water-splitting methods.

Tattoo-like sensor can detect glucose levels without finger prick

January 15, 2015 7:48 am | by American Chemical Society | News | Comments

Scientists have developed the first ultra-thin, flexible device that sticks to skin like a rub-on tattoo and can detect a person’s glucose levels. The sensor, reported in a proof-of-concept study in Analytical Chemistry, has the potential to eliminate finger-pricking for many people with diabetes.

Rapid journey through a crystal lattice

January 15, 2015 7:39 am | by Andreas Battenberg, TUM | News | Comments

The time frames, in which electrons travel within atoms, are unfathomably short. For example, electrons excited by light change their quantum-mechanical location within mere attoseconds. But how fast do electrons whiz across distances corresponding to the diameter of individual atomic layers?

ISS evacuated one side during leak scare

January 14, 2015 4:48 pm | by Marcia Dunn, Associated Press | News | Comments

NASA evacuated astronauts from its side of the International Space Station today after an alarm indicated a possible toxic leak. Officials later said a false sensor reading or computer problem likely set off the alarm, rather than an actual leak of ammonia coolant.

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A twist on planetary origins

January 14, 2015 4:34 pm | by Jennifer Chu, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Meteors that have crashed to Earth have long been regarded as relics of the early solar system. These craggy chunks of metal and rock are studded with chondrules, tiny, glassy, spherical grains that were once molten droplets. Scientists have thought that chondrules represent early kernels of terrestrial planets.

Scientists develop novel platform for treatment of breast, pancreatic cancer

January 14, 2015 4:18 pm | by The Scripps Research Institute | News | Comments

Scientists from The Scripps Research Institute have identified a novel synthetic compound that sharply inhibits the activity of a protein that plays an important role in in the progression of breast and pancreatic cancers. In the new study the scientists showed that the compound, known as SR1848, reduces the activity and expression of the cancer-related protein called “liver receptor homolog-1” or LRH-1.

Chemical dial controls attraction between water-repelling molecules

January 14, 2015 4:12 pm | by Chris Barncard, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison | News | Comments

Fear of water may seem like an irrational hindrance to humans, but on a molecular level, it lends order to the world. Some substances, in particular greasy, oily ones, are hydrophobic. They have no attraction to water, and essentially appear repelled by the stuff. Combine hydrophobic pieces in a molecule with parts that are instead attracted to water, and sides are taken. Structure appears, as in the membranes that encircle living cells.

Carbon nanotube finding could lead to flexible electronics with longer battery life

January 14, 2015 4:04 pm | by Adam Malecek, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison | News | Comments

Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison materials engineers have made a significant leap toward creating higher-performance electronics with improved battery life and the ability to flex and stretch. The team has reported the highest-performing carbon nanotube transistors ever demonstrated. In addition to paving the way for improved consumer electronics, this technology could also have specific uses in industrial and military applications.

Self-driving cars: Lower-cost navigation system developed

January 14, 2015 11:31 am | by Gabe Cherry, Univ. of Michigan | News | Comments

A new software system developed at the Univ. of Michigan uses video game technology to help solve one of the most daunting hurdles facing self-driving and automated cars—the high cost of the laser scanners they use to determine their location. Ryan Wolcott, a U-M doctoral candidate in computer science and engineering, estimates that it could shave thousands of dollars from the cost of these vehicles.

Advanced 3-D facial imaging may aid in early detection of autism

January 14, 2015 11:16 am | by Jeff Sossamon, Univ. of Missouri-Columbia | Videos | Comments

Autism is a spectrum of closely related disorders diagnosed in patients who exhibit a shared core of symptoms, including delays in learning to communicate and interact socially. Early detection of autism in children is the key for treatments to be most effective and produce the best outcomes. Using advanced 3-D imaging and statistical analysis techniques, researchers identified facial measurements in children with autism.

Ultra-realistic radiation detection training without radioactive materials

January 14, 2015 10:49 am | by Kenneth Ma, LLNL | News | Comments

Training of first responders on the hazards of actual radiological and nuclear threats has been challenged by the difficulties of adequately representing those threats. Training against such threats would involve using hazardous, highly radioactive materials, experiencing actual radiation doses in training, or require the distribution of radioactive material over a large geographical area.

Laser-induced graphene “super” for electronics

January 14, 2015 10:34 am | by Mike Williams, Rice Univ. | News | Comments

Rice Univ. scientists advanced their recent development of laser-induced graphene by producing and testing stacked, 3-D supercapacitors, energy storage devices that are important for portable, flexible electronics. The Rice laboratory of chemist James Tour discovered last year that firing a laser at an inexpensive polymer burned off other elements and left a film of porous graphene.

DNA “glue” could be used to build tissues, organs

January 14, 2015 10:23 am | by American Chemical Society | News | Comments

DNA molecules provide the "source code" for life in humans, plants, animals and some microbes. But now researchers report an initial study showing that the strands can also act as a glue to hold together 3-D-printed materials that could someday be used to grow tissues and organs in the laboratory.

How to predict responses to disease

January 14, 2015 10:18 am | by Larry Hardesty, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Sometimes the response to the outbreak of a disease can make things worse. The ability to anticipate when such overreactions might occur could help public health officials take steps to limit the dangers. Now a new computer model could provide a way of making such forecasts, based on a combination of data collected from hospitals, social media and other sources.

Scientists use “NanoVelcro” and temperature control to extract tumor cells from blood

January 14, 2015 9:06 am | by Shaun Mason, Univ. of California, Los Angeles | News | Comments

A group led by scientists has developed a new method for effectively extracting and analyzing cancer cells circulating in patients’ blood. Circulating tumor cells are cancer cells that break away from tumors and travel in the blood, looking for places in the body to grow new tumors called metastases. Capturing these rare cells would allow doctors to detect and analyze the cancer so they could tailor treatment for individual patients.

Zinc-oxide materials tapped for tiny energy harvesting devices

January 14, 2015 8:45 am | by American Institute of Physics | News | Comments

Today, we're surrounded by a variety of electronic devices that are moving increasingly closer to us. Many types of smart devices are readily available and convenient to use. The goal now is to make wearable electronics that are flexible, sustainable and powered by ambient renewable energy. This last goal inspired a group of researchers to explore zinc oxide as an effective material choice.

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