Structures that put a spin on light reveal tiny amounts of DNA with 50 times better sensitivity than the best current methods, a collaboration between the Univ. of Michigan and Jiangnan Univ. in China has shown. Highly sensitive detection of DNA can help with diagnosing patients, solving crimes and identifying the origins of biological contaminants such as a pathogen in a water supply.
New research from North Carolina State Univ. and the Univ. of Minnesota finds that people in the U.S. want labels on food products that use nanotechnology—whether the nanotechnology is in the food or is used in food packaging. The research also shows that many people are willing to pay more for the labeling.
The effort to better understand nanoscale properties has produced large-scale government and industrial research organizations, such as the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) and the Nanoelectronics Research Initiative (NRI). These efforts, each funded in the billion-dollar range, depend on the ability of researchers from around the world to effectively use the analytical tools.
Quantum dots are nano-sized semiconductor particles whose emission color can be tuned by simply changing their dimensions. New research at Los Alamos National Laboratory aims to improve quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes by using a new generation of engineered quantum dots tailored specifically to have reduced wasteful charge-carrier interactions that compete with the production of light.
The direct emission of terahertz radiation would be useful in science, but no laser has yet been developed which can provide it. A team headed of researchers have now demonstrated that graphene meets an important condition for use in novel lasers for terahertz pulses with long wavelengths: It permits population inversion, a key prerequisite for stimulated radiation emission.
By tuning gold nanoparticles to just the right size, researchers from Brown Univ. have developed a catalyst that selectively converts carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, an active carbon molecule that can be used to make alternative fuels and commodity chemicals.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory researchers at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) have invented a new technique for studying the process by which certain errors in the genetic code are detected and repaired. The technique is based on a combination of hybrid nanomaterials and SAXS imaging at the ALS SIBYLS beamline.
As microelectronics get smaller and smaller, one of the biggest challenges to packing a smartphone or tablet with maximum processing power and memory is the amount of heat generated by the tiny “switches” at the heart of the device. A complex metal-oxide film could help reduce the voltage required to switch electronic signals, and thus the excessive energy they require.
Researchers at Purdue Univ. are developing a method to mass-produce a new type of nanomaterial for advanced sensors and batteries, with an eye toward manufacturing in the Midwest. Research findings indicate the material shows promise as a sensor for detecting glucose in the saliva or tears and for "supercapacitors" that could make possible fast-charging, high-performance batteries.
As electronics approach the atomic scale, researchers are increasingly successful at developing atomically thin, virtually 2-D materials that could usher in the next generation of computing. Integrating these materials to create necessary circuits, however, has remained a challenge. Northwestern Univ. researchers have now taken a significant step toward fabricating complex nanoscale electronics.
An aggressive form of breast cancer known as “triple negative” is very difficult to treat: Chemotherapy can shrink such tumors for a while, but in many patients they grow back and gain resistance to the original drugs. To overcome that resistance, chemical engineers have designed nanoparticles that carry the cancer drug doxorubicin, as well as short strands of RNA that can shut off one of the genes that cancer cells use to escape the drug.
When it comes to designing extremely water-repellent surfaces, shape and size matter. That's the finding of a group of scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory, who investigated the effects of differently shaped, nanoscale textures on a material's ability to force water droplets to roll off without wetting its surface.
Instead of having to use tons of crushing force and volcanic heat to forge diamonds, researchers at Case Western Reserve Univ. have developed a way to cheaply make nanodiamonds on a laboratory bench at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature. The nanodiamonds are formed directly from a gas and require no surface to grow on.
Researchers from the NIST and zeroK Nanotech Corp. have demonstrated a new ion source that may enable focused ion beams with high brightness and resolution for nanoscale fabrication and measurement applications in fields ranging from semiconductor manufacturing to biotechnology. Working under a CRADA, the researchers have constructed the first prototype of a low-temperature ion source.
Scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a general approach for combining different types of nanoparticles to produce large-scale composite materials. The technique opens many opportunities for mixing and matching particles with different magnetic, optical or chemical properties to form new, multifunctional materials or materials with enhanced performance for a wide range of potential applications.
A South Korean joint industrial-academic research team has developed the technology to put forward the commercialization of nanowire that is only a few nanometers wide. In cooperation with LG Innotek and the National Nanofab Center, Prof. Jun-Bo Yoon, from KAIST Dept. of Electrical Engineering, developed the technology to mass produce nanowire at any length with various materials.
In new research, scientists have demonstrated that the efficiency of all solar panel designs could be improved by up to 22% by covering their surface with aluminium studs that bend and trap light inside the absorbing layer. At the microscopic level, the studs make the surface of the solar panels look similar to the interlocking building bricks played with by children across the world.
Renewable sources like sun and wind aren’t always productive. But waves in the ocean are never still, prompting Georgia Institute of Technology scientists to find a way to produce energy by making use of contact electrification between a patterned plastic nanoarray and water. They have introduced an inexpensive and simple prototype of a triboelectric nanogenerator that could be used to produce energy and as a chemical or temperature sensor.
A discovery at Rice Univ. aims to make vehicles that run on compressed natural gas more practical. It might also prolong the shelf life of bottled beer and soda. The Rice laboratory of chemist James Tour has enhanced a polymer material to make it far more impermeable to pressurized gas and far lighter than the metal in tanks now used to contain the gas.
Writing in Nature Communications, researchers at The Univ. of Manchester and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated that membranes can be directly 'written' on to a graphene surface using a technique known as Lipid Dip-Pen Nanolithography (L-DPN).
Carbyne will be the strongest of a new class of microscopic materials if and when anyone can make it in bulk. If they do, they’ll find carbyne nanorods or nanoropes have a host of remarkable and useful properties, as described in a paper by Rice Univ. theoretical physicist Boris Yakobson and his group.
For years scientists have been working to fundamentally understand how nanoparticles move throughout the human body. One big unanswered question is how the shape of nanoparticles affects their entry into cells. Now researchers have discovered that under typical culture conditions, mammalian cells prefer disc-shaped nanoparticles over those shaped like rods.
Atomically thin sheets of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) have the handy benefit of protecting what’s underneath from oxidizing even at very high temperatures, Rice Univ. researchers have discovered. One or several layers of the material sometimes called “white graphene” keep materials from oxidizing up to 1,100 C (2,012 F), and can be made large enough for industrial applications, they said.
The Kavli Foundation has endowed a new institute at the Univ. of California, Berkeley, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to explore the basic science of how to capture and channel energy on the molecular or nanoscale and use this information to discover new ways of generating energy for human use.
Autumn is usually not such a great time for big special effects movies as the summer blockbusters have faded and those for the holiday season have not yet opened. Fall is more often the time for thoughtful films about small subjects, which makes it perfect for the unveiling of a new movie produced by researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.