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New York invests in nanotech with General Electric

July 15, 2014 4:17 pm | by David Klepper - Associated Press - Associated Press | News | Comments

New York state is teaming with General Electric Co. and other companies on a $500 million initiative to spur high-tech manufacturing of miniature electronics, Gov. Andrew Cuomo and GE CEO Jeffrey Immelt announced Tuesday. The state will invest $135 million for the collaborative program, which will be based out of the SUNY College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering in Albany.

3-D nanostructure could benefit nanoelectronics, gas storage

July 15, 2014 10:57 am | by B.J. Almond, Rice Univ. | News | Comments

A 3-D porous nanostructure would have a balance of strength, toughness and ability to transfer heat that could benefit, nanoelectronics, gas storage and composite materials that perform multiple functions, according to engineers at Rice Univ. The researchers made this prediction by using computer simulations to create a series of 3-D prototypes with boron nitride, a chemical compound made of boron and nitrogen atoms.

Swiss cross made from just 20 single atoms

July 15, 2014 9:14 am | News | Comments

Together with teams from Finland and Japan, physicists from the Univ. of Basel in Switzerland were able to place 20 single bromine atoms on a fully insulated surface at room temperature to form the smallest “Swiss cross” ever created. The effort is a breakthrough because the fabrication of artificial structures on an insulator at room temperature is difficult. It is largest number of atomic manipulations ever achieved at room temperature.

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Researchers discover boron “buckyball”

July 14, 2014 11:44 am | News | Comments

The discovery of buckyballs helped usher in the nanotechnology era. Now, researchers from Brown Univ. and colleagues from China have shown that boron, carbon’s neighbor on the periodic table, can form a cage-like molecule similar to the buckyball. Until now, such a boron structure had only been a theoretical speculation.

From stronger Kevlar to better biology

July 14, 2014 9:17 am | by Angela Herring, Northeastern Univ. | News | Comments

Mar­ilyn Minus, a materials expert and assis­tant pro­fessor at Northeastern Univ., is exploring directed self-assembly methods using carbon nanotubes and polymer solutions. So far, she’s used the approach to develop a polymer com­posite mate­rial that is stronger than Kevlar yet much lighter and less expen­sive. Minus is now expanding this work to incor­po­rate more polymer classes: flame retar­dant mate­rials and bio­log­ical molecules.

Silicon oxide memories catch manufacturers’ eye

July 10, 2014 5:06 pm | by Jade Boyd, Rice Univ. | News | Comments

First developed five years ago at Rice Univ., silicon oxide memories are a type of two-terminal, “resistive random-access memory” (RRAM) technology that beats flash memory’s data density by a factor of 50. At Rice, the laboratory of chemist and 2013 R&D Magazine Scientist of the Year James Tour has recently developed a new version of RRAM that Tour believes outperforms more than a dozen competing versions.

“Nanopixels” promise thin, flexible high-res displays

July 10, 2014 9:35 am | News | Comments

A team in the U.K. has found that by sandwiching a 7-nm thick layer of a phase change material between two layers of a transparent electrode they could use a tiny current to “draw” images within the sandwich “stack”. The discovery could make it possible to create pixels just a few hundred nanometers across and pave the way for extremely high-resolution and low-energy thin, flexible displays.

Highway for ultracold atoms in light crystals

July 9, 2014 2:10 pm | News | Comments

When a superconductor is exposed to a magnetic field, a surface current creates a magnetic field that cancels the field inside the superconductor. This phenomenon, known as the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect, was first observed in 1933. In a research first, scientists have succeeded in measuring an analogue of the Meissner effect in an optical crystal with ultracold atoms. This validates theoretical predictions dating back more than 20 years.

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Consider the “anticrystal”

July 7, 2014 3:12 pm | News | Comments

For the last century, the concept of crystals has been a mainstay of solid-state physics. Crystals are paragons of order; crystalline materials are defined by the repeating patterns their constituent atoms and molecules make. Now physicists have evidence that a new concept should undergird our understanding of most materials: the anticrystal, a theoretical solid that is completely disordered.

The new atomic age: Building smaller, greener electronics

July 7, 2014 3:06 pm | by Bryan Alary, Univ. of Alberta | News | Comments

Robert Wolkow and his team at the Univ. of Alberta are working to engineer atomically precise computing technologies that have practical, real-world applications. In recent research, he and his team observed for the first time how an electrical current flows across the skin of a silicon crystal and also measured electrical resistance as the current moved over a single atomic step.

With "ribbons" of graphene, width matters

July 7, 2014 9:39 am | by Laura L. Hunt, UW-Milwaukee | News | Comments

Using graphene ribbons just several atoms across, a group of researchers at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee has found a novel way to “tune” the material, causing the extremely efficient conductor of electricity to act as a semiconductor. By imaging the ribbons with scanning-tunneling microscopy, researchers have confirmed how narrow the ribbon width must be. Achieving less than 10 nm in width is a big challenge.

Japanese gold leaf artists worked on the nanoscale

July 2, 2014 3:10 pm | News | Comments

Ancient Japanese gold leaf artists were truly masters of their craft. An analysis of six of these Japanese paper screens show that these artifacts are gilded with gold leaf that was hand-beaten to the nanometer scale. The study was able to prove this without any damage to the screens through the use of x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

Toward a new way to keep electronics from overheating

July 2, 2014 1:05 pm | News | Comments

Using something called a microchannel heat sink to simulate the warm environment of a working computer, researchers in Malaysia have analyzed three nanofluids for the traits that are important in an effective coolant. The results of their study show that the nanofluids, which are made of metallic nanoparticles that have been added to a liquid, such as water, all performed better than water as coolants, with one mixture standing out.

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Inspired by nature, researchers create tougher metal materials

July 2, 2014 11:56 am | News | Comments

Materials science experts in North Carolina and China collaborated on work that drew inspiration from the structure of bones and bamboo. The team has found that by gradually changing the internal structure of metals, stronger, tougher materials can be created and customized for a wide variety of applications, from body armor to automobile parts. The gradient structure concept works on numerous metals, including stainless steel and nickel.

Separating finely mixed oil and water

July 1, 2014 11:51 am | by David L. Chandler, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Whenever there is a major spill of oil into water, the two tend to mix into a suspension of tiny droplets, called an emulsion, that is extremely hard to separate and can cause severe damage to ecosystems. A new membrane developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers can separate even these highly mixed fine oil-spill residues.

A smashing new look at nanoribbons

July 1, 2014 9:56 am | News | Comments

Recent research at the Rice Univ. lab of materials scientist Pulickel Ajayan has discovered that nanotubes that hit a target end first turn into mostly ragged clumps of atoms. But nanotubes that happen to broadside the target unzip into handy ribbons that can be used in composite materials for strength and applications that take advantage of their desirable electrical properties.

Interlayer distance in graphite oxide gradually changes when water is added

June 30, 2014 2:21 pm | News | Comments

Physicists in Europe have solved a mystery that has puzzled scientists for half a century. it has long been known that the distance between the graphene oxide layers depends on the humidity, not the actual amount of water added. But now, with the help of powerful microscopes, it can be seen how distance between graphite oxide layers gradually increases when water molecules are added, and why this phenomenon occurs.

More pores for more power

June 30, 2014 2:10 pm | News | Comments

Researchers in Germany have produced a new material the size of a sugar cube that has a surface area equivalent to more than seven tennis courts. This novel type of nanofiber has a highly ordered and porous structure gives it an extraordinarily high surface-to-volume ratio and could be a key enabling technology for lithium-sulfur batteries.

Scientists develop force sensor from carbon nanotubes

June 30, 2014 2:05 pm | News | Comments

A group of researchers from Russia, Belarus and Spain, including MIPT professor Yury Lozovik, have developed a microscopic force sensor based on carbon nanotubes. The device consists of two nanotubes placed so that their open ends are opposite to each other. Voltage of just 10 nA is then applied to the nanocircuit and force is measured by the change in position of the nanotubes.

Physicists explain counterintuitive phenomenon in superconductivity

June 30, 2014 8:54 am | by Julie Cohen, UC Santa Barbara | News | Comments

For his doctoral dissertation, Yu Chen developed a novel way to fabricate superconducting nanocircuitry. However, the extremely small zinc nanowires he designed did some unexpected things, including demonstrating dissipation characteristics though only to be present in normal states. After long and careful work, which involved both experimental and theoretical efforts, researchers have found an explanation that fits.

Silver in the washing machine

June 30, 2014 8:35 am | News | Comments

The antibacterial properties of silver-coated textiles are popular in the fields of sport and medicine. A team in Switzerland has now investigated how different silver coatings behave in the washing machine, and they have discovered something important: textiles with nano-coatings release fewer nano-particles into the washing water than those with normal coatings.

Researchers create quantum dots with single-atom precision

June 30, 2014 7:59 am | News | Comments

An international team of physicists including researchers from the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has used a scanning tunneling microscope to create quantum dots with identical, deterministic sizes. The perfect reproducibility of these dots opens the door to quantum dot architectures completely free of uncontrolled variations, an important goal for technologies from nanophotonics to quantum information processing.

Chemists develop magnetically responsive liquid crystals

June 27, 2014 9:38 am | News | Comments

Scientists at the Univ. of California, Riverside have constructed liquid crystals with optical properties that can be instantly and reversibly controlled by an external magnetic field. Unlike conventional liquid crystals, which rotate and align themselves when an electric field is applied, the new crystals are essentially a liquid dispersion of magnetic nanorods.

Watching nanoscale fluids flow

June 27, 2014 7:48 am | by Kimm Fesenmaier, Caltech | News | Comments

At the nanoscale, where objects are measured in billionths of meters and events transpire in trillionths of seconds, things do not always behave as our experiences with the macro world might lead us to expect. Water, for example, seems to flow much faster within carbon nanotubes than classical physics says should be possible. Now imagine trying to capture movies of these almost imperceptibly small nanoscale movements.

Water-cleanup catalysts tackle biomass upgrading

June 26, 2014 12:33 pm | by Mike Williams, Rice Univ. | News | Comments

Rice Univ. chemical engineer Michael Wong has spent a decade amassing evidence that palladium-gold nanoparticles are excellent catalysts for cleaning polluted water, but even he was surprised at how well the particles converted biodiesel waste into valuable chemicals.

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