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A new way to make sheets of graphene

May 23, 2014 7:39 am | by David L. Chandler, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Graphene’s promise as a material for new kinds of electronic devices, among other uses, has led researchers around the world to study the material in search of new applications. But one of the biggest limitations to wider use of the strong, lightweight, highly conductive material has been the hurdle of fabrication on an industrial scale.

Study probes resonant energy transfer from quantum dots to graphene

May 22, 2014 8:41 am | News | Comments

In recent work at Brookhaven National Laboratory, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been combined with graphene to develop nanoscale photonic devices that can dramatically improve our ability to detect light. The research has demonstrated that the thickness of the organic molecule layer that typically surrounds the QDs is crucial in attaining sufficiently high efficiency of light/energy transfer into the graphene.

Why quantum dots suffer from “fluorescence intermittency”

May 22, 2014 8:12 am | News | Comments

Researchers have found that a particular species of quantum dots that weren't commonly thought to blink, do. So what? Well, although the blinks are short, even brief fluctuations can result in efficiency losses that could cause trouble for using quantum dots to generate photons that move information around inside a quantum computer or between nodes of a future high-security internet based on quantum telecommunications.

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Why eumelanin is a good absorber of light

May 22, 2014 7:39 am | by David L. Chandler, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Melanin—and specifically, the form called eumelanin—is the primary pigment that gives humans the coloring of their skin, hair and eyes. It protects the body from the hazards of ultraviolet and other radiation that can damage cells and lead to skin cancer, but the exact reason why the compound is so effective at blocking such a broad spectrum of sunlight has remained something of a mystery.

A new solution for storing hydrogen fuel for alternative energy

May 21, 2014 2:13 pm | News | Comments

An international team of researchers have figured out a new way of storing and releasing hydrogen by making a unique crystal phase of a material containing lithium, boron and the key ingredient, hydrogen. To check how they could get the hydrogen back out of the material, the scientists heated it and found that it released hydrogen easily, quickly and only traces of unwanted by-products.

Liquid crystal acts as machine lubricant

May 21, 2014 9:27 am | News | Comments

Although lubricants for machinery are widely used, almost no fundamental innovations for this type of product has been made in the last 20 years, according researchers in Germany who have been working on a new class of lubricating substance. Their new liquid crystalline lubricant enable nearly frictionless sliding because although it is a liquid, the molecules display directional properties like crystals do.

Metal-organic framework shows new talent

May 21, 2014 8:15 am | News | Comments

This gift from science just keeps on giving. Measurements taken at NIST show why a material already known to be good at separating components of natural gas also can do something trickier: help convert one chemical to another, a process called catalysis. The discovery is a rare example of a laboratory-made material easily performing a task that biology usually requires a complex series of steps to accomplish.

Chemists challenge conventional understanding of photocatalysis

May 21, 2014 8:13 am | by Iqbal Pittalwala, UC Riverside | News | Comments

Photocatalysis is a promising route to convert solar energy into chemical fuels, or to split water into molecular hydrogen. But viable photocatalysts, or promoters, for these applications are scarce. A team of chemists in California has come up with a model to explain this promoting effect that could shift the focus in the search for substitutes of the metals, and help identify better promoters for photocatalysis in the near future.

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Professors' super waterproof surfaces cause water to bounce like a ball

May 20, 2014 2:51 pm | News | Comments

Brigham Young Univ. engineering professors Julie Crockett and Dan Maynes have created a sloped channel that is super-hydrophobic, and causes water to bounce like a ball as it rolls down the ramp. Their recent study finds surfaces with a pattern of microscopic ridges or posts, combined with a hydrophobic coating, produces an even higher level of water resistance, depending on how the water hits the surface.

Scientists use nanoparticles to control growth of materials

May 20, 2014 7:59 am | by Matthew Chin, UCLA | News | Comments

A team led by researchers from the Univ. of California, Los Angeles has developed a new process to control molecular growth within the "building block" components of inorganic materials. The method, which uses nanoparticles to organize the components during a critical phase of the manufacturing process, could lead to innovative new materials, such as self-lubricating bearings for engines.

New “T-ray” tech converts light to sound for weapons detection, medical imaging

May 19, 2014 1:17 pm | News | Comments

Terahertz, or T-ray, range of the electromagnetic has rich promise for scientific applications, but instrumentation that can take advantage of these rays for imaging are still in progress. Univ. of Michigan researchers have recently made a breakthrough by converting terahertz light into sound using a compact, sensitive detector that operates at room temperature and is fabricated in an unusual manner.

Improved supercapacitors provides twice the energy and power

May 19, 2014 9:44 am | by Sean Nealon, UC Riverside | News | Comments

Researchers at the Univ. of California, Riverside have developed a new nanometer scale ruthenium oxide anchored nanocarbon graphene foam architecture that improves the performance of supercapacitors. They found that the new structure could operate safely in aqueous electrolyte and deliver two times more energy and power compared to supercapacitors commercially available today.

Team visualizes complex electronic state

May 19, 2014 7:35 am | by David L. Chandler, MIT News Office | News | Comments

A material called sodium manganese dioxide has shown promise for use in electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Now a team of researchers has produced the first detailed visualization—down to the level of individual atoms—of exactly how the material behaves during charging and discharging, in the process elucidating an exotic molecular state that may help in understanding superconductivity.

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IBM research discovers new class of industrial polymers

May 16, 2014 2:03 pm | News | Comments

Scientists at IBM Research have used a new “computational chemistry” hybrid approach to accelerate the materials discovery process that couples laboratory experimentation with the use of high-performance computing. The new polymers are the first to demonstrate resistance to cracking, strength higher than bone, the ability to reform to their original shape (self-heal), and the ability to be completely recycled back to the starting material.

Lighting the way to graphene-based devices

May 16, 2014 1:45 pm | by Lynn Yarris, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

Graphene continues to reign as the next potential superstar material for the electronics industry, a slimmer, stronger and much faster electron conductor than silicon. With no natural energy bandgap, however, graphene’s superfast conductance can’t be switched off, a serious drawback for transistors and other electronic devices.

Silly Putty material inspires better batteries

May 16, 2014 7:56 am | by Sean Nealon, UC Riverside | News | Comments

Using a material found in Silly Putty and surgical tubing, a group of researchers at the Univ. of California, Riverside Bourns College of Engineering have developed a new way to make lithium-ion batteries that will last three times longer between charges compared to the current industry standard. The innovation involves the development of silicon dioxide nanotube anodes.

NASA Langley workshop: Engineered materials for adhesion or abhesion

May 15, 2014 10:43 am | Videos | Comments

Scientists at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a new material technology that alters a surface’s topography and chemistry to promote or mitigate adhesion. LaRC is holding a workshop and meeting on May 22 that explains how these newly available materials work to enhance or remove adhesion. Manufacturers and developers are welcome to attend.

NASA Langley Workshop: NASA Engineered Materials for Adhesion or Abhesion

May 15, 2014 10:32 am | Events

Are you an adhesives or coatings manufacturer? Do you need to adhesively join parts? Or, do you need durable non-stick coatings? Then, make plans to attend this meeting! Learn about new advanced materials and processing methods to either enhance adhesion or to create non-stick surfaces.

Researchers discover rare form of iron oxide in ancient pottery

May 15, 2014 7:52 am | by Kate Greene, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

New analysis of ancient Jian wares reveals the distinctive pottery contains an unexpected and highly unusual form of iron oxide. This rare compound, called epsilon-phase iron oxide, was only recently discovered and characterized by scientists and so far has been extremely difficult to create with modern techniques.

Strongly interacting electrons in wacky oxide synchronize to work like the brain

May 14, 2014 2:01 pm | by Walt Mills, Penn State Univ. | News | Comments

Vanadium dioxide is called a "wacky oxide" because it transitions between a conducting metal and an insulating semiconductor and with the addition of heat or electrical current. A device created by Penn State engineers uses a thin film of vanadium oxide on a titanium dioxide substrate to create an oscillating switch that could form the basis of a computational device that uses a fraction of the energy necessary for today’s computers.

Technique enables air-stable water droplet networks

May 14, 2014 7:48 am | by Morgan McCorkle, Oak Ridge National Laboratory | News | Comments

A simple new technique to form interlocking beads of water in ambient conditions could prove valuable for applications in biological sensing, membrane research and harvesting water from fog. Researchers have developed a method to create air-stable water droplet networks known as droplet interface bilayers. These interconnected water droplets have many roles in biological research because their interfaces simulate cell membranes.

Multilayer nanofiber face mask helps to combat pollution

May 13, 2014 12:43 pm | News | Comments

In response to persistent haze and concerns about its health effects, scientists in Hong Kong have developed a simple face mask which can block out suspended particles. The nanofiber technology can filter ultra-fine pollutants that have yet been picked up by air quality monitors. These particles can measure 1 micrometer or less.

Graphene photonics breakthrough promises fast-speed, low-cost communications

May 9, 2014 12:08 pm | News | Comments

Researchers in Australia have created a micrometer thin film with record-breaking optical nonlinearity suitable for high-performance integrated photonic devices. To create the thin film the researchers spin coated graphene oxide solution to a glass surface. Using a laser as a pen they created microstructures on the graphene oxide film to tune the nonlinearity of the material.

Exploring the magnetism of a single atom

May 9, 2014 8:53 am | News | Comments

A research collaboration has combined several experimental and computational methods to measure, for the first time, the energy needed to change the magnetic anisotropy of a single cobalt atom. Their methodology included the use of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to determine a cobalt atom’s “stubbornness”, or preference toward specific magnetic direction.

Regenerating plastic grows back after damage

May 9, 2014 8:08 am | by Liz Ahlberg, Physical Sciences Editor, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | News | Comments

Looking at a smooth sheet of plastic in one Univ. of Illinois laboratory, no one would guess that an impact had recently blasted a hole through it. Illinois researchers have developed materials that not only heal, but regenerate. Until now, self-repairing materials could only bond tiny microscopic cracks. The new regenerating materials fill in large cracks and holes by regrowing material.

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