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Scientists develop force sensor from carbon nanotubes

June 30, 2014 2:05 pm | News | Comments

A group of researchers from Russia, Belarus and Spain, including MIPT professor Yury Lozovik, have developed a microscopic force sensor based on carbon nanotubes. The device consists of two nanotubes placed so that their open ends are opposite to each other. Voltage of just 10 nA is then applied to the nanocircuit and force is measured by the change in position of the nanotubes.

Measuring the mass of “massless” electrons

June 23, 2014 2:57 pm | News | Comments

The electrons in graphene behave as “massless” particles, yet these electrons also seem to have dual personalities. Phenomena observed in the field of graphene plasmonics suggest that when the electrons move collectively, they must exhibit mass. After two years of effort, researchers at Harvard Univ. have successfully measured the collective mass of “massless” electrons in motion in graphene.

“Sensing skin” quickly detects cracks, damage in concrete structures

June 23, 2014 8:10 am | by Matt Shipman, News Services, North Carolina State Univ. | News | Comments

Researchers from North Carolina State Univ. and the Univ. of Eastern Finland have developed new “sensing skin” technology designed to serve as an early warning system for concrete structures, allowing authorities to respond quickly to damage in everything from nuclear facilities to bridges.

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Energy-level alignment at metal/organic interfaces: Tying up the loose ends

June 19, 2014 8:33 am | News | Comments

Organic semiconductors have tremendous potential for complementing conventional, inorganic semiconductors, but energy losses or barriers at the connection interfaces have blocked development efforts. Physicists have now implemented a detailed electrostatic model which is capable of covering the full phenomenological range of interfacial energy-level alignment regimes within a single, consistent framework.

Collecting light with artificial moth eyes

June 18, 2014 4:00 pm | News | Comments

Researchers the world over are investigating solar cells which imitate plant photosynthesis, with the goal of using sunlight and water to create synthetic fuels such as hydrogen. Scientists in Switzerland have developed this type of photoelectrochemical cell, but this one recreates a moth’s eye to drastically increase its light collecting efficiency. The cell is made of cheap raw materials: iron and tungsten oxide.

Nano-imaging probes molecular disorder

June 13, 2014 10:59 am | News | Comments

In semiconductor-based components, high mobility of charge-carrying particles is important. In organic materials, however, it is uncertain to what degree the molecular order within the thin films affects the mobility and transport of charge carriers. Using a new imaging method, researchers have shown that thin-film organic semiconductors contain regions of structural disorder that could inhibit the transport of charge and limit efficiency.

New circuit design functions at temperatures greater than 650 F

June 13, 2014 8:16 am | News | Comments

Engineers at the Univ. of Arkansas have designed integrated circuits that can survive at temperatures greater than 350 C—or roughly 660 F. The team achieved the higher performance by combining silicon carbide with wide temperature design techniques. In the world of power electronics and integrated circuits, their work represents the first implementation of a number of fundamental analog, digital and mixed-signal blocks.

Researchers introduce new benchmark for field-effect transistors

June 11, 2014 3:32 pm | News | Comments

At the 2014 Symposium on VLSI Technology in Triangle Park, N.C., researchers from the Univ. of California, Santa Barbara introduced the highest-performing class III-V metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) yet demonstrated. The new MOSFETs exhibit, in an industry first, on-current, off-current and operating voltage comparable to or exceeding production silicon devices, while also staying relatively compact.

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Charging portable electronics in 10 minutes

June 10, 2014 3:09 pm | by Sean Nealon, UC Riverside | News | Comments

Researchers at the University of California, Riverside Bourns College of Engineering have developed a 3-D, silicon-decorated, cone-shaped carbon-nanotube cluster architecture for lithium ion battery anodes that could enable charging of portable electronics in 10 minutes. It also increases cell capacity and reduces size and weight by 40%.

Designing ion “highway systems” for batteries

June 10, 2014 2:19 pm | News | Comments

Since the early 1970s, lithium has been the most popular element for batteries because of it’s low weight and good electrochemical potential. But it is also highly flammable. Researchers have recently married two traditional theories in materials science that can explain how the charge dictates the structure of the material. And using this they may be able to move to other materials, such as block copolymers, for use in batteries.

Nanoscale structure could boost memory performance for computer chips

June 5, 2014 12:35 pm | by Matthew Chin, UCLA | News | Comments

Researchers in California have created a nanoscale magnetic component for computer memory chips that could significantly improve their energy efficiency and scalability. The design brings spintronics one step closer to being used in computer systems by adopting a new strategy called “spin-orbit torque” that eliminates the need for a magnetic field for switching processes.

Berkeley Lab scientists create first fully 2-D field effect transistors

June 4, 2014 3:03 pm | News | Comments

Faster electronic device architectures are in the offing with the unveiling of the world’s first fully 2-D field-effect transistor (FET) by researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Unlike conventional FETs made from silicon, these 2-D FETs suffer no performance drop-off under high voltages and provide high electron mobility, even when scaled to a monolayer in thickness.

New prototype transistor consumes little power

June 4, 2014 7:37 am | News | Comments

The basic element of modern electronics, namely the transistor, suffers from significant current leakage. By enveloping a transistor with a shell of piezoelectric material, which distorts when voltage is applied, researchers in the Netherlands were able to reduce this leakage by a factor of five compared to a transistor without this material.

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Controlling thermal conductivities can improve energy storage

June 4, 2014 7:30 am | by Rick Kubetz, Univ. of Illinois | News | Comments

Materials that control heat flow are available with both high and low conductivities, but materials with variable and reversible thermal conductivities are rare. For the first time, researchers at the Univ. of Illinois have experimentally shown that the thermal conductivity of lithium cobalt oxide, an important material for electrochemical energy storage, can be reversibly electrochemically modulated over a considerable range.

Researchers predict the electrical response of metals to extreme pressures

June 3, 2014 10:50 am | News | Comments

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute scientists have developed a method that can predict how subjecting metals to severe pressure can lower their electrical resistance. The finding which involved theoretical predictions, use of a supercomputer, and equipment capable of exerting pressures up to 40,000 atmospheres, could have applications in computer chips and other materials that could benefit from specific electrical resistance.

Researchers predict the electrical response of metals to extreme pressures

June 3, 2014 8:32 am | by Mary Martialay, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | News | Comments

Research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences makes it possible to predict how subjecting metals to severe pressure can lower their electrical resistance, a finding that could have applications in computer chips and other materials that could benefit from specific electrical resistance.

SABIC collaborates with Cima Nanotech on new conductive, transparent film

May 29, 2014 9:01 am | News | Comments

Saudi Arabian-based petrochemical company SABIC and Cima NanoTech have announced the joint development of a new transparent conductive polycarbonate film. The collaboration leverages both Cima NanoTech’s proprietary SANTE nanoparticle technology and SABIC’s LEXAN film to produce a film that outperforms indium tin oxide by a factor of ten.

Microscopy charges ahead

May 29, 2014 8:05 am | by Jared Sagoff, Argonne National Laboratory | News | Comments

In order to see the true polarization of ferroelectric materials quickly and efficiently, researchers at Argonne National Laboratory have developed a new technique called charge gradient microscopy. Charge gradient microscopy uses the tip of a conventional atomic force microscope to scrape and collect the surface screen charges.

New supercapacitor design stands up to abuse

May 20, 2014 7:52 am | by David Salisbury, Vanderbilt Univ. | News | Comments

Modern supercapacitors store ten times less energy than a lithium-ion battery but can last a thousand times longer. The main drawback of supercapacitors, however, is the inability to cope with stresses such as pressure and vibration. Researchers have developed a new supercapacitor that operates flawlessly in storing and releasing electrical charge while subject to stresses or pressures up to 44 psi and vibrational accelerations over 80 g.

Improved supercapacitors provides twice the energy and power

May 19, 2014 9:44 am | by Sean Nealon, UC Riverside | News | Comments

Researchers at the Univ. of California, Riverside have developed a new nanometer scale ruthenium oxide anchored nanocarbon graphene foam architecture that improves the performance of supercapacitors. They found that the new structure could operate safely in aqueous electrolyte and deliver two times more energy and power compared to supercapacitors commercially available today.

Silly Putty material inspires better batteries

May 16, 2014 7:56 am | by Sean Nealon, UC Riverside | News | Comments

Using a material found in Silly Putty and surgical tubing, a group of researchers at the Univ. of California, Riverside Bourns College of Engineering have developed a new way to make lithium-ion batteries that will last three times longer between charges compared to the current industry standard. The innovation involves the development of silicon dioxide nanotube anodes.

Researchers in Korea greatly improve piezoelectric nanogenerator efficiency

May 15, 2014 12:51 pm | News | Comments

Scientists at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology have increased the energy efficiency of a piezoelectric nanogenerator by almost 40 times, moving it closer to commercial flexible energy harvesters that can supply power infinitely to wearable, implantable electronic devices. The technique used to make this improvement, laser lift-off, allows the placement of a high-quality piezoelectric film on a sapphire substrate.

Strongly interacting electrons in wacky oxide synchronize to work like the brain

May 14, 2014 2:01 pm | by Walt Mills, Penn State Univ. | News | Comments

Vanadium dioxide is called a "wacky oxide" because it transitions between a conducting metal and an insulating semiconductor and with the addition of heat or electrical current. A device created by Penn State engineers uses a thin film of vanadium oxide on a titanium dioxide substrate to create an oscillating switch that could form the basis of a computational device that uses a fraction of the energy necessary for today’s computers.

In the wake of high-profile battery fires, a safer approach emerges

May 14, 2014 9:36 am | News | Comments

As news reports of lithium-ion battery (LIB) fires in Boeing Dreamliner planes and Tesla electric cars remind us, these batteries, which are in everyday portable devices, like tablets and smartphones, have their downsides. Now, scientists have designed a safer kind of lithium battery component that is far less likely to catch fire and still promises effective performance.

Students build carbon nanostructures in hypergravity

May 7, 2014 9:24 am | News | Comments

An experiment sponsored for students by the European Space Agency has recently shown that carbon nanomaterials are built differently under conditions of hypergravity. They found that there was a distinct change in nanostructures that were built at 1g , 6g and 15g. Both surface growth and volume growth were observed at the higher gravity levels.

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