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Imaging technology could unlock mysteries of a childhood disease

December 30, 2013 12:29 pm | by John Toon, Georgia Institute of Technology | News | Comments

By the time they’re two, most children have had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and suffered symptoms no worse than a bad cold. But for some children, RSV can lead to pneumonia and bronchitis. A new imaging technique for studying the structure of the RSV virion and the activity of RSV in living cells could help researchers unlock the secrets of the virus.

Kinect-based virtual reality training promotes brain reorganization after stroke

December 27, 2013 1:11 pm | News | Comments

Recently, a study team from the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen Univ. in China has verified that virtual reality training using the Kinect system from the Xbox 360 could promote the recovery of upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients, and brain reorganization by Kinect-based virtual reality training may be linked to the contralateral sensorimotor cortex.

UNOS to oversee hand, face transplants like organs

December 27, 2013 10:39 am | by Lauran Neergaard, AP Medical Writer | News | Comments

The government is preparing to regulate the new field of hand and face transplants like it does standard organ transplants, giving more Americans who are disabled or disfigured by injury, illness or combat a chance at this radical kind of reconstruction. The United Network for Organ Sharing, or UNOS, will develop the new policies over the next few months.

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Pilot alertness aboard the Solar Impulse

December 23, 2013 10:59 am | News | Comments

Solar Impulse pilot Bertrand Piccard put his mental and physiological limits to the test during a 72-hour simulated flight across the Atlantic Ocean which ended Friday. Scientists from the Swiss Federal Polytechnic Institute in Lausanne monitored his mental states and cardiac rhythm throughout the flight to test his mental and physiological boundaries during strenuous flight conditions.

Computer models, observations inside a cell reveal RNA’s interesting “machines”

December 19, 2013 7:26 pm | by Elizabeth Dougherty, Massachusetts Institute of Technology | News | Comments

New collaborative work from computational biologists in Massachusetts and California combines computational and experimental approaches to identify biologically meaningful RNA folds. The work could open the door to a better understanding of RNA machinery, which includes the ribosome, microRNAs and riboswitches, and long noncoding RNAs whose diverse functions are only beginning to be understood.

The synaptic mechanisms behind brain waves

December 17, 2013 12:20 am | News | Comments

How information is processed and encoded in the brain is a central question in neuroscience. But the brain's underlying synaptic mechanisms have so far remained unclear. In a recent study, researchers have discovered the synaptic mechanisms underlying oscillations in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the researchers suggest a role for these oscillations in the coding of information by the principal neurons in that area of the brain.

Hybrid carrier five times more effective in delivering genetic material into cells

December 16, 2013 2:48 pm | News | Comments

Researchers in New York City have developed a carrier in their lab that is five times more efficient in delivering DNA into cells than today’s commercial delivery methods: reagent vectors. This novel complex is a peptide-polymer hybrid, assembled from two separate, less effective vectors that are used to carry DNA into cells.

3-D printed implants may soon fix complex injuries

December 13, 2013 2:54 pm | by Katie Feldman, National Science Foundation | News | Comments

Researchers are adapting technology for 3-D printing metals, ceramics, and other materials to create custom medical implants designed to fix complicated injuries. Using a technology called Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS), these new implants integrate into the body more effectively, encouraging bone regrowth that ultimately results in a stronger, longer lasting implant.

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Engineers make strides toward artificial cartilage

December 13, 2013 1:50 pm | News | Comments

A Duke Univ. research team has developed a better recipe for synthetic replacement cartilage in joints. Combining two innovative technologies, the team found a way to create artificial replacement tissue that mimics both the strength and suppleness of native cartilage. Articular cartilage is the tissue on the ends of bones where they meet at joints in the body.

Optogenetics as good as electrical stimulation

December 13, 2013 8:34 am | News | Comments

Brown Univ. researchers have shown that optogenetics can be as good as or possibly better than the older technique of using small bursts of electrical current. Optogenetics had been used in small rodent models. Research has shown that optogenetics works effectively in larger, more complex brains.

Speeding up gene discovery

December 13, 2013 7:42 am | by Anne Trafton, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Since the completion of the Human Genome Project, which identified nearly 20,000 protein-coding genes, scientists have been trying to decipher the roles of those genes. A new approach, called CRISPR, should speed up the process by allowing researchers to study the entire genome at once. The new system allows researchers to permanently and selectively delete genes from a cell’s DNA.

New method efficiently and easily bonds gels and biological tissues

December 12, 2013 8:49 am | News | Comments

A research team in France has invented an adhesion method that creates a strong bond between two gels by spreading on their surface a solution containing nanoparticles. Until now, there was no entirely satisfactory method of obtaining adhesion between two gels or two biological tissues. The bond is resistant to water and uses no polymers or chemical reactions.

Tech for Faster Diagnosis, Cures

December 10, 2013 2:52 pm | by Lindsay Hock | Articles | Comments

In January 2013, an assoc. prof of biomedical engineering at Columbia Univ., Samuel K. Sia, developed a lab-on-a-chip technology that not only checks a patient’s HIV status with a finger prick, it also synchronizes the results automatically and instantaneously with central health care records. The technology, developed in collaboration with OPKO Diagnostics and called mChip, performs all ELISA functions, and produces results within 15 min.

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Multiphysics Models Create New Biomedical Information

December 10, 2013 2:30 pm | by Tim Studt | Articles | Comments

Multiphysics software simulations are used by biomedical equipment developers to reliably design complex mechanisms for enhancing the human physical condition. These medical devices can include tools for treating cancers, enhancing hearing and treating chronic back pain.

Sensor tracks zinc in cells

December 10, 2013 7:21 am | by Anne Trafton, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Zinc is found in every tissue in the body. The vast majority of the metal ion is tightly bound to proteins, helping them to perform biological reactions. Tiny amounts of zinc, however, are only loosely bound, and may be critical for proper function in some organs. Yet the exact roles the ion plays in biological systems are unknown. A new optical sensor tracks zinc within cells and should help researchers learn more about its functions.

Innovative contact lens delivers glaucoma medication continuously

December 9, 2013 10:10 am | News | Comments

For nearly 50 years, contact lenses have been proposed as a means of ocular drug delivery that may someday replace eye drops, but achieving controlled drug release has been a significant challenge. Researchers in Massachusetts have made an advance in this direction with the development of a drug-eluting contact lens designed for prolonged delivery glaucoma medication.

Recycled plastic effective in killing drug-resistant fungi

December 9, 2013 9:46 am | News | Comments

Researchers in Singapore and at IBM Research in California have discovered a new, potentially life-saving application for polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which is widely used to make plastic bottles. They have successfully converted PET into a non-toxic biocompatible material with superior fungal killing properties. This could help prevent and treat various fungus-induced diseases such as keratitis.

“Smuggling” drugs at the cellular level

December 9, 2013 9:28 am | by Britt Faulstick, Drexel Univ. | News | Comments

Medicated adhesive patches have become a preferred method of delivery for everything from nicotine to hormones to motion sickness medication. Drexel Univ. researchers are trying to expand the possibilities of this system, which is called transdermal delivery, with the help of a cleverly designed delivery vehicle and an ultrasonic "push," or pressure from sound waves.

Industry Breakout - Life Sciences

December 9, 2013 6:10 am | by R&D Magazine/Battelle | Articles | Comments

As represented in this Forecast, the life science industry includes biopharmaceuticals, medical instruments and devices, animal/agricultural bioscience and commercial research and testing. However, the industry’s R&D spending is driven primarily by the mass and research intensity of the biopharmaceutical sector, which accounts for nearly 85% of all expenditures.

Gene sequencing that everyone can afford

December 6, 2013 8:15 am | News | Comments

Researchers in China, working on the optimization of a third-generation sequencing technique based on nanopores, have found that long-chain DNA with low salt concentration is more conducive to the nanopore sequencing process. This finding may improve the efficiency of sequencing, and further low the cost of gene sequencing.

Collaboration yields new genetic variant data set for 1000 Genomes Project

December 5, 2013 9:33 am | News | Comments

DNAnexus has announced a collaboration with Stanford Univ. that has resulted in a new 1000 Genomes Project data set of genetic variation. Launched in January 2008, the 1000 Genomes Project was the first international effort to sequence a large number of individual genomes with the goal of developing a comprehensive and freely accessible resource on human genetic variation.

Database tracks toxic side effects of pharmaceuticals

December 5, 2013 9:13 am | News | Comments

Sometimes the cure can be worse than the disease. Pharmaceutical drugs are known for their potential side effects, and an important aspect of personalized medicine is to tailor therapies to individuals to reduce the chances of adverse events. Now researchers from North Carolina State Univ. have updated an extensive toxicology database so that it can be used to track information about therapeutic drugs and their unintentional toxic effects.

Ultrathin “diagnostic skin” allows continuous patient monitoring

December 5, 2013 9:10 am | News | Comments

An international multidisciplinary team including researchers at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering has developed  a sophisticated ”electronic skin” that adheres non-invasively to human skin, conforms well to contours, and provides a detailed temperature map of any surface of the body.

Researchers develop new technology to study hearing

December 4, 2013 8:20 am | Videos | Comments

Much of what is known about sensory touch and hearing cells is based on indirect observation. Scientists know that these tiny cells are sensitive to changes in force and pressure. But to truly understand how they function, scientists must be able to manipulate them directly. Now, Stanford Univ. scientists are developing a set of tools that are small enough to stimulate an individual nerve or group of nerves.

A leap forward in x-ray technology

December 4, 2013 7:47 am | by David Chandler, MIT News Office | News | Comments

X-rays transformed medicine a century ago by providing a noninvasive way to detect internal structures in the body. Still, they have limitations: X-rays cannot image the body’s soft tissues, except with the use of contrast-enhancing agents that must be swallowed or injected, and their resolution is limited. But a newly developed approach could dramatically change that.

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