Even in a crowded room full of background noise, the human ear is remarkably adept at tuning in to a single voice—a feat that has proved remarkably difficult for computers to match. A new analysis of the underlying mechanisms, conducted by researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has provided insights that could ultimately lead to better machine hearing, and perhaps to better hearing aids as well.
Changing the texture and surface characteristics of a semiconductor material at the nanoscale can influence the way that neural cells grow on the material. The finding stems from a study performed by researchers at North Carolina State Univ., the Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Purdue Univ., and may have utility for developing future neural implants.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration said Tuesday it approved a Belgium-made nerve-stimulating headband as the first medical device to prevent migraine headaches. Agency officials said the device provides a new option for patients who can't tolerate migraine medications. The Cefaly device is a battery-powered plastic band worn across the forehead.
Smartphones are capable of giving us directions when we’re lost, sending photos and videos to our friends in mere seconds and, perhaps very soon, diagnose our diseases in real time. Researchers in Texas are developing a disease diagnostic system made of a glass slide and a porous film of gold that offers results that could be read using only a smartphone and a $20 lens attachment.
It's not just grandma with a new hip and your uncle with a new knee. More than two of every 100 Americans now have an artificial joint, doctors are reporting. Among those over 50, it's even more common: 5% have replaced a knee and more than 2%, a hip.
Over the past 20 years, the number of laboratory tests available to primary care physicians has doubled, to more than 3,500 tests, and physicians are challenged by the quantity of tests available. A recent survey conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggests they often face uncertainty in ordering and interpreting clinical laboratory tests, and would welcome better electronic clinical decision support tools.
When a person becomes sick or is exposed to an unwelcome substance, the body mobilizes specific proportions of different immune cells in the blood. Methods of discovering and detecting those profiles are therefore useful both clinically and in research. In a new Genome Biology paper, a team of scientists describes a new and uniquely advantageous way to detect them.
Scientists who study past pandemics, such as the 14th-century Black Death that devastated much of Europe, might soon be turning to an innovative biological detection technology for some extra help. The apparent first use of this technology, known as a microarray, for studying pathogens from ancient DNA, was reported by a team of scientists in Scientific Reports.
A second baby born with the AIDS virus may have had her infection put into remission and possibly cured by very early treatment—in this instance, four hours after birth. Doctors revealed the case Wednesday at an AIDS conference in Boston. The girl was born in suburban Los Angeles last April, a month after researchers announced the first case from Mississippi.
About the size of a stapler, this new handheld device developed in Switzerland is able to test a large number of proteins in our body all at once. This optical “lab on a chip” is compact and inexpensive, and it could offer the possibility of quickly analyzing up to 170,000 different molecules in a blood sample.
For people whose hands shake uncontrollably due to a medical condition, just eating can be a frustrating and embarrassing ordeal, enough to keep them from sharing a meal with others. But a small new study conducted at the Univ. of Michigan Health System suggests that a new handheld electronic device can help such patients overcome the hand shakes caused by essential tremor, the most common movement disorder.
Finding treatments for advanced stage cancer isn’t easy. Therefore, early detection methods are paramount in the fight against the disease. Motivated by the opportunity to intervene as early as possible in the course of cancer, Dr. Muneesh Tewari, a Univ. of Michigan researcher, has been studying the diagnostic potential of blood-based biomarkers.
A team of researchers has developed a material that could help prevent blood clots associated with catheters, heart valves, vascular grafts and other implanted biomedical devices. Blood clots at or near implanted devices are thought to occur when the flow of nitric oxide, a naturally occurring clot-preventing agent generated in the blood vessels, is cut off. When this occurs, the devices can fail.
A DNA test of a pregnant woman's blood is more accurate than current methods of screening for Down syndrome and other common disorders, new research finds. If other studies bear this out, it could transform prenatal care by giving a more reliable, non-invasive way to detect these problems very early in pregnancy.
Using an inexpensive 3-D printer, biomedical engineers have developed a custom-fitted, implantable device with embedded sensors that could transform treatment and prediction of cardiac disorders. An international team has created a 3-D elastic membrane made of a soft, flexible, silicon material that is precisely shaped to match the heart’s epicardium, or the outer layer of the wall of the heart.
Delivering drugs into the brain to treat neurological diseases and disorders has been a challenge. The current best and easiest way to get drugs anywhere in the body is to take them orally or to administer them intravenously. But the challenges for these routes of drug delivery for targets in the brain are multiple.
Defective blood coagulation is one of the leading causes of preventable death in patients who have suffered trauma or undergone surgery. To provide caregivers with timely information about the clotting properties of a patient’s blood, researchers have developed an optical device that requires only a few drops of blood and a few minutes to measure the key coagulation parameters that can guide medical decisions.
Typically, researchers construct cell-building scaffolds from synthetic materials or natural animal or human substances. Until now, however, no scaffolds grown in a Petri dish have been able to mimic the highly organized structure of the matrix made by living things. Researchers in Michigan have used a nano-grate to persuade fibroblasts to grow a scaffold with fibers just 80 nm, similar to to fibers in a natural matrix.
A light-activated drug delivery system for treating cancer is particularly promising to traditional chemotherapy methods because it can accomplish spatial and temporal control of drug release. To this end, scientists have developed a new type of nanoparticle that can absorb energy from tissue-penetrating light that releases drugs in cancer cells.
From the sun, a solution: Cornell Univ. and Weill Cornell Medical College researchers have remodeled an energy-intensive medical test, designed to detect a deadly skin cancer related to HIV infections, to create a quick diagnostic assay perfect for remote regions of the world. By harnessing the sun’s power and employing a smartphone application, medical technicians may now handily administer reliable assays for Kaposi’s sarcoma.
Researchers have developed the technology for a catheter-based device that would provide forward-looking, real-time, 3-D imaging from inside the heart, coronary arteries and peripheral blood vessels. With its volumetric imaging, the new device could better guide surgeons working in the heart, and potentially allow more of patients’ clogged arteries to be cleared without major surgery.
A new bioprinting method developed at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard Univ. creates intricately patterned 3-D tissue constructs with multiple types of cells and tiny blood vessels. The work represents a major step toward a longstanding goal of tissue engineers: creating human tissue constructs realistic enough to test drug safety and effectiveness.
A Canadian study that many experts say has major flaws has revived a debate about the value of mammograms. The study suggests that these screening x-rays do not lower the risk of dying of breast cancer while finding many tumors that do not need treatment. The study gives longer follow-up on nearly 90,000 women who were given either a breast exam by a nurse to check for lumps plus a mammogram or the breast exam alone.
To improve their chances of success, in vitro fertilization clinics need to assess the viability of the sperm they use. Now doctors may soon have a new technique to help them sort the good sperm cells from the less viable ones: a tracking system, developed by a team of researchers from four European institutions, that takes 3-D movies of living sperm.
Shape is thought to play an important role in the effectiveness of cells grown to repair or replace damaged tissue in the body. To help design new structures that enable cells to "shape up," researchers at NIST have come up with a way to measure, and more importantly, classify, the shapes cells tend to take in different environments.