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A surprising new role for natural killer T cells

August 25, 2014 9:25 am | News | Comments

In the past, immune cells were clearly divided into innate cells, which respond to attacks in a non-specific way, and adaptive cells, which learn to recognize new antigens and gain the ability to rapidly react to later attacks. Researchers at RIKEN in Japan have discovered that is not always the case, having found that killer T cells previously thought to be innate, and thus short-lived, can remain in the lung for up to nine months.

Gold Standard for Laparoscopic Surgery

August 22, 2014 2:38 pm | Award Winners

Laparoscopic Surgery was introduced with a goal to reduce morbidities associated with open surgical techniques. Twenty years later, although it has brought much better outcomes across a number of indicators, it still has some significant patient morbidities and mortality risks associated with it. Port site hernia is one such example. No ubiquitous global device-based standard of care developed has been accepted to deal with this issue. neoSurgical’s neoClose brings a simple, accurate technology/device-based solution that can be deployed in less than 30 sec.

Laser device may end pin pricks for diabetics

August 22, 2014 8:07 am | by John Sullivan, Office of Engineering Communications, Princeton Univ. | News | Comments

Princeton Univ. researchers have developed a way to use a laser to measure people's blood sugar, and, with more work to shrink the laser system to a portable size, the technique could allow diabetics to check their condition without pricking themselves to draw blood.

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Reducing the Pain

August 21, 2014 4:51 pm | Award Winners

Milliken and Company’s ASSIST Silver is a low-adherent antimicrobial dressing used primarily in burn care for the management of skin grafts. The dressing incorporates three primary features: Active Fluid Management (AFM) technology, an ionic silver antimicrobial and a low-adherent layer.

Saving Childrens’ Lives

August 21, 2014 4:18 pm | Award Winners

Globally, 22 million infants aren’t receiving basic vaccines and 1.5 million children will die each year from vaccine-preventable diseases before they reach age five. This challenge is further complicated by the fact that most vaccines must be refrigerated, and more than a billion people globally don’t have reliable access to electricity. Vaccination rates are lowest in remote and rural locations. As part of Intellectual Ventures’ Global Good program, Intellectual Venture Labs (IVL) approached Stratos Product Development for help in developing an insulated container to strengthen and extend vaccination services in developing countries.

Medical Tests for the Developing World

August 21, 2014 3:52 pm | Award Winners

Novilytic’s Noviplex Plasma Collection Card is a self-contained, blood-plasma sampling device used to volumetrically collect a plasma aliquot independent of whole blood application volumes. The Noviplex requires no power and circumvents requirements for venipuncture-phlebotomy training, needles, special vials and equipment, refrigeration and centrifugation normally associated with traditional plasma methods.

Researchers use 3-D printers to create custom medical implants

August 21, 2014 10:18 am | by Dave Guerin, Louisiana Tech Univ. | News | Comments

A team of researchers at Louisiana Tech Univ. has developed an innovative method for using affordable, consumer-grade 3-D printers and materials to fabricate custom medical implants that can contain antibacterial and chemotherapeutic compounds for targeted drug delivery.

Could elastic bands monitor patients’ breathing?

August 20, 2014 11:39 am | News | Comments

Research published in ACS Nano identifies a new type of sensor that could monitor body movement and advance the future of global health care. Although body motion sensors already exist in different forms, they have not been widely used due to their complexity and cost of production.

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Many patients don’t understand electronic lab results

August 20, 2014 10:48 am | by Laurel Thomas Gnagey, Univ. of Michigan | News | Comments

While it's becoming commonplace for patients to see the results of laboratory work electronically, a new Univ. of Michigan study suggests that many people may not be able to understand what those numbers mean. The research found that people with low comprehension of numerical concepts—or numeracy—and low literacy skills were less than half as likely to understand whether a result was inside or outside the reference ranges.

Microchip reveals how tumor cells transition to invasion

August 18, 2014 11:06 am | by Kevin Stacey, Brown Univ. | News | Comments

Using a microengineered device that acts as an obstacle course for cells, researchers have shed new light on a cellular metamorphosis thought to play a role in tumor cell invasion throughout the body. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which epithelial cells, which tend to stick together within a tissue, change into mesenchymal cells, which can disperse and migrate individually.

New way to treat solid tumors

August 15, 2014 11:12 am | News | Comments

An international team of scientists has shown that an antibody against the protein EphA3, found in the micro-environment of solid cancers, has anti-tumor effects. As EphA3 is present in normal organs only during embryonic development but is expressed in blood cancers and in solid tumors, this antibody-based approach may be a suitable candidate treatment for solid tumors.

Non-invasive method controls size of molecules passing blood-brain barrier

August 14, 2014 4:38 pm | News | Comments

A new technique has demonstrated for the first time that the size of molecules penetrating the blood-brain barrier can be controlled using acoustic pressure. The innovative ultrasound approach uses acoustic pressure to let molecules through, and may help treatment for central nervous system diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

Nanotech invention improves effectiveness of the “penicillin of cancer”

August 14, 2014 8:01 am | by Jared Sagoff, Argonne National Laboratory | News | Comments

By combining magnetic nanoparticles with one of the most common and effective chemotherapy drugs, Argonne National Laboratory researchers have created a way to deliver anti-cancer drugs directly into the nucleus of cancer cells. They have created nano-sized bubbles, or “micelles,” that contain magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide and cisplatin, a conventional chemotherapy drug also known as “the penicillin of cancer.”

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New material could enhance fast, accurate DNA sequencing

August 14, 2014 7:41 am | by Liz Ahlberg, Physical Sciences Editor, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | News | Comments

Gene-based personalized medicine has many possibilities for diagnosis and targeted therapy, but one big bottleneck: the expensive and time-consuming DNA sequencing process. Now, researchers at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have found that nanopores in the material molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) could sequence DNA more accurately, quickly and inexpensively than anything yet available.

Tattoo biobatteries produce power from sweat

August 13, 2014 12:45 pm | Videos | Comments

In the future, working up a sweat by exercising may not only be good for your health, but it could also power your small electronic devices. Researchers report that they have designed a sensor in the form of a temporary tattoo that can both monitor a person’s progress during exercise and produce power from their perspiration.

A Potential New Route to Stopping Surgical Bleeding

August 13, 2014 10:44 am | by Lindsay Hock, Managing Editor | Articles | Comments

Surgical and trauma patients are at significant risk for morbidity and mortality from bleeding and/or leaking bodily fluids. With the number and complexity of surgeries rising, so is the need for better hemostatic agents to stop bleeding as quickly as possible. The history of approaches to hemostasis goes back to when people simply used their hands or a tool to apply to a wound to stop bleeding.

3-D Printing for Blood Recycling, Medical Developments

August 13, 2014 10:15 am | by Lindsay Hock, Managing Editor | Stratasys, Ltd. | Articles | Comments

Imagine your religious beliefs laid between you and your life. This is what happened in mid-April to Julie Penoyer, a 50-year-old U.K. heart patient and Jahovah’s Witness. Following her religious beliefs, her request when undergoing open-heart surgery was to not receive donated blood products.

“Shape-shifting” material could help reconstruct faces

August 13, 2014 8:49 am | News | Comments

Injuries, birth defects (such as cleft palates) or surgery to remove a tumor can create gaps in bone that are too large to heal naturally. And when they occur in the head, face or jaw, these bone defects can dramatically alter a person’s appearance. Researchers have developed a “self-fitting” material that expands with warm salt water to precisely fill bone defects, and also acts as a scaffold for new bone growth.

R&D Magazine Announces Scientist and Innovator of the Year Award Winners

August 12, 2014 12:00 pm | by Lindsay Hock, Managing Editor | News | Comments

R&D Magazine introduced its annual Scientist of the Year Award winner, Dr. Karl Deisseroth, and its Innovator of the Year Award winner, Dr. Hugh Herr. As R&D Magazine's 49th Scientist of the Year Award winner, Dr. Deisseroth is one of the United States’ leading researchers in the rapidly growing field of optogenetics, having invented several new technologies in support of efforts to understand neural functions in the human brain.

Bioengineers make functional 3-D brain-like tissue model

August 12, 2014 10:40 am | by Kim Thurler, Tufts Univ. | News | Comments

The human brain remains one of the least understood organs in the human body, because of its complexity and the difficulty of studying its physiology in the living body. Tufts Univ. researchers announced development of the first reported complex 3-D model made of brain-like cortical tissue that exhibits biochemical and electrophysiological responses and can function in the laboratory for months.

Synthetic molecule makes cancer self-destruct

August 12, 2014 8:40 am | News | Comments

Researchers from the University of Texas at Austin and five other institutions have created a molecule that can cause cancer cells to self-destruct by ferrying sodium and chloride ions into the cancer cells. These synthetic ion transporters confirm a two-decades-old hypothesis that could point the way to new anticancer drugs while also benefitting patients with cystic fibrosis.

FDA approves first DNA-based test for colon cancer

August 11, 2014 5:22 pm | by Matthew Perrone - AP Health Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

The Food and Drug Administration has approved the first screening test for colon cancer that uses patient DNA to help spot potentially deadly tumors and growths. The Cologuard test from Exact Sciences detects irregular mutations in a patient's stool sample that can be an early warning sign of cancer. Patients who test positive for the mutations should undergo a colonoscopy to confirm the results.

New biomaterial coats tricky burn wounds by acting like cling wrap

August 11, 2014 12:33 pm | News | Comments

Wrapping wound dressings around fingers and toes can be tricky, but for burn victims, guarding them against infection is critical. At the National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society scientists have reported the development of new ultra-thin coatings called nanosheets that can cling to the body's contours and keep bacteria at bay. The super-thin sheets have been tested on mice and could help transform burn treatment.

“Seeing” through virtual touch is believing

August 11, 2014 10:10 am | by Tom Robinette, Univ. of Cincinnati | News | Comments

Visual impairment comes in many forms, and it's on the rise in America. A Univ. of Cincinnati experiment aimed at this diverse and growing population could spark development of advanced tools to help all the aging baby boomers, injured veterans, diabetics and white-cane-wielding pedestrians navigate the blurred edges of everyday life.

Scientists use lasers, carbon nanotubes to look inside living brains

August 8, 2014 8:19 am | by Bjorn Carey, Stanford News Service | News | Comments

Some of the most damaging brain diseases can be traced to irregular blood delivery in the brain. Now, Stanford Univ. chemists have employed lasers and carbon nanotubes to capture an unprecedented look at blood flowing through a living brain. The technique was developed for mice but could one day be applied to humans, potentially providing vital information in the study of stroke and migraines.

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