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Genomics & Proteomics
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Trends in Genomics Technology

March 10, 2014 8:54 am | by Barrett Bready and John Thompson, Nabsys | Articles | Comments

Ever since the study of individual genes and RNAs was first known to be important, there has been a drive to get as detailed and complete genomic information as possible. Early technologies like the hybridization-based Southern and Northern blotting methods were tremendous advances, but allowed only a handful of genomic targets to be studied at a time.

Biomolecular tweezers facilitate study of mechanical force effects on cells

March 10, 2014 8:07 am | by John Toon, Georgia Institute of Technology | News | Comments

A new type of biomolecular tweezers could help researchers study how mechanical forces affect the biochemical activity of cells and proteins. The devices use opposing magnetic and electrophoretic forces to precisely stretch the cells and molecules, holding them in position so that the activity of receptors and other biochemical activity can be studied.

Synthetic biologists shine light on genetic circuit analysis

March 10, 2014 7:56 am | Videos | Comments

In a significant advance for the growing field of synthetic biology, Rice Univ. bioengineers have created a toolkit of genes and hardware that uses colored lights and engineered bacteria to bring both mathematical predictability and cut-and-paste simplicity to the world of genetic circuit design.

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Liver metabolism study could help patients awaiting transplants

March 7, 2014 1:39 pm | News | Comments

In a new study that could help doctors extend the lives of patients awaiting liver transplants, a Rice Univ.-led team of researchers examined the metabolic breakdown that takes place in liver cells during late-stage cirrhosis and found clues that suggest new treatments to delay liver failure.

A new way to profile immune cells in blood

March 7, 2014 8:42 am | by David Orenstein, Brown Univ. | News | Comments

When a person becomes sick or is exposed to an unwelcome substance, the body mobilizes specific proportions of different immune cells in the blood. Methods of discovering and detecting those profiles are therefore useful both clinically and in research. In a new Genome Biology paper, a team of scientists describes a new and uniquely advantageous way to detect them.

Computational tool offers new insight into key biological processes

March 6, 2014 10:45 am | by Matt Shipman, News Services, North Carolina State Univ. | News | Comments

Researchers from North Carolina State Univ. have developed a computational tool designed to guide future research on biochemical pathways by identifying which components in a biological system are related to specific biochemical processes, including those processes responsible for gene expression, cell signaling, stress response and metabolism.

Microbial detection array detects plague in ancient human remains

March 6, 2014 10:40 am | by Stephen P Wampler, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | News | Comments

Scientists who study past pandemics, such as the 14th-century Black Death that devastated much of Europe, might soon be turning to an innovative biological detection technology for some extra help. The apparent first use of this technology, known as a microarray, for studying pathogens from ancient DNA, was reported by a team of scientists in Scientific Reports.

Shrinking gel steers tooth tissue formation

March 6, 2014 9:02 am | by Dan Ferber, Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard Univ. | News | Comments

A bit of pressure from a new shrinking, sponge-like gel is all it takes to turn transplanted unspecialized cells into cells that lay down minerals and begin to form teeth. The bioinspired gel material could one day help repair or replace damaged organs, such as teeth and bone, and possibly other organs as well.

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Pumping iron: A hydrogel actuator with mussel tone

March 6, 2014 8:48 am | by Marcia Goodrich, Michigan Technological Univ. | News | Comments

Protein from a small, tasty mollusk inspired Michigan Technological Univ.’s Bruce P. Lee to invent a new type of hydrogel actuator. Hydrogels are soft networks of polymers with high water content, like jello. Because of their soft, gentle texture, they have the potential to interact safely with living tissues and have applications in a number of medical areas, including tissue engineering.

Brain circuits multitask to detect, discriminate the outside world

March 6, 2014 8:40 am | by Brett Israel, Georgia Institute of Technology | News | Comments

Imagine driving on a dark road. In the distance you see a single light. As the light approaches it splits into two headlights. That’s a car, not a motorcycle, your brain tells you. A new study found that neural circuits in the brain rapidly multitask between detecting and discriminating sensory input, such as headlights in the distance.

Cell’s skeletons get a closer look

March 6, 2014 8:29 am | News | Comments

Rice Univ. researchers have developed a theoretical approach to analyze the process by which protein building blocks form the biopolymer skeletons of living cells. The cytoskeleton, made of fibers and microtubules, gives a cell its shape and provides the “roads” along which proteins and other cargoes travel.

Gene therapy seems safe, may help control HIV

March 5, 2014 5:21 pm | by Marilynn Marchione - AP Chief Medical Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

Scientists have modified genes in the blood cells of HIV patients to help them resist the AIDS virus, and say the treatment seems safe and promising. The results give hope that this approach might one day free at least some people from needing medicines to keep HIV under control, a form of cure.

Gene identified for butterfly wing marking mimicry

March 5, 2014 5:03 pm | by Malcolm Ritter, AP Science Writer | News | Comments

To fool predators, some butterflies create wing color patterns that make them resemble their unpalatable cousins. Only recently have scientists been unraveling how they do that, and now researchers have identified the gene that does the trick for an Asian swallowtail.

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Doctors hope for cure in a 2nd baby born with HIV

March 5, 2014 1:21 pm | by Marilynn Marchione - AP Chief Medical Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

A second baby born with the AIDS virus may have had her infection put into remission and possibly cured by very early treatment—in this instance, four hours after birth. Doctors revealed the case Wednesday at an AIDS conference in Boston. The girl was born in suburban Los Angeles last April, a month after researchers announced the first case from Mississippi.

Earlier Detection of Cancer

February 28, 2014 1:55 pm | by Muneesh Tewari, Univ. of Michigan, and George Karlin-Neumann, Director of Scientific Affairs, Bio-Rad's Digital Biology Center | Articles | Comments

Finding treatments for advanced stage cancer isn’t easy. Therefore, early detection methods are paramount in the fight against the disease. Motivated by the opportunity to intervene as early as possible in the course of cancer, Dr. Muneesh Tewari, a Univ. of Michigan researcher, has been studying the diagnostic potential of blood-based biomarkers.

Combination therapies combat HIV at cell junctions

February 28, 2014 10:36 am | by Bill Hathaway, Yale Univ. | News | Comments

A new Yale Univ. study indicates that cell-to-cell transmission of HIV particles contributes to the development of full-blown AIDS and helps predict which anti-retroviral therapies will be most effective at keeping the disease at bay. The new research reinforces recent findings that a heavy concentration of the virus at the point of contact between cells is crucial to the development of AIDS.

Tracking genes on the path to genetic treatment

February 28, 2014 8:36 am | by John Sullivan, Office of Engineering Communications, Princeton Univ. | News | Comments

Before doctors like Matthias Kretzler can begin using the results of molecular research to treat patients, they need science to find an effective way to match genes with the specific cells involved in disease. As Kretzler explains, finding that link would eventually let physicians create far more effective diagnostic tools and treatments.

Scientists describe deadly immune “storm” caused by emergent flu infections

February 28, 2014 7:53 am | News | Comments

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have mapped key elements of a severe immune overreaction, a “cytokine storm”, that can both sicken and kill patients who are infected with certain strains of flu virus. Their findingsalso clarify the workings of a potent new class of anti-inflammatory compounds that prevent this immune overreaction in animal models.

Disease-causing bacterial invaders aided by failure of immune system switch

February 27, 2014 1:06 pm | by Bill Hathaway, Yale Univ. | News | Comments

Immune system defenses against dangerous bacteria in the gut can be breached by turning off a single molecular switch that governs production of the protective mucus lining our intestinal walls, according to a study led by researchers at Yale Univ., the Univ. of British Columbia and the Weizmann Institute of Science.

Faster anthrax detection could speed bioterror response

February 27, 2014 12:47 pm | News | Comments

Shortly following the 9/11 terror attack in 2001, letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to news outlets and government buildings killing five people and infecting 17 others. According to a 2012 report, the bioterrorism event cost $3.2 million in cleanup and decontamination. At the time, no testing system was in place that officials could use to screen the letters.

One gene influences recovery from traumatic brain injury

February 27, 2014 9:44 am | by Diana Yates, Life Sciences Editor Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | News | Comments

Researchers report that one tiny variation in the sequence of a gene may cause some people to be more impaired by traumatic brain injury than others with comparable wounds. The study, described in PLOS ONE, measured general intelligence in a group of 156 Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating head injuries during the war.

DNA blood tests show prenatal screening promise

February 26, 2014 5:20 pm | by Marilynn Marchione - AP Chief Medical Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

A DNA test of a pregnant woman's blood is more accurate than current methods of screening for Down syndrome and other common disorders, new research finds. If other studies bear this out, it could transform prenatal care by giving a more reliable, non-invasive way to detect these problems very early in pregnancy.

Finding a few foes among billions of friends

February 26, 2014 2:46 pm | by Steven Powell, Univ. of South Carolina | News | Comments

Beating cancer is all about early detection, and new research from the Univ. of South Carolina is another step forward in catching the disease early. A team of chemists is reporting a new way to detect just a few lurking tumor cells, which can be outnumbered a billion to one in the bloodstream by healthy cells.

FDA weighs unknowns of 3-person embryo technique

February 26, 2014 10:42 am | by Matthew Perrone, AP Health Writer | News | Comments

At a recent two-day meeting, the Food and Drug Administration heard from supporters and opponents of a provocative new technique meant to prevent children from inheriting debilitating diseases. The method creates babies from the DNA of three people, and the agency is considering whether to greenlight testing in women who have defective genes.

Experimental treatment eradicates acute leukemia in mice

February 26, 2014 7:53 am | by Shaun Mason, Univ. of California, Los Angeles | News | Comments

A diverse team of scientists from Univ. of California, Los Angeles' Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center has developed an experimental treatment that eradicates an acute type of leukemia in mice without any detectable toxic side effects. The drug works by blocking two important metabolic pathways that the leukemia cells need to grow and spread.

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