Over the past year, researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and around the world, have been studying a group of potent antibodies that have the ability to neutralize HIV in the laboratory; their hope is that they may learn how to create a vaccine that makes antibodies with similar properties. Now, biologists at Caltech have taken one step closer to that goal: They have developed a way to deliver these antibodies to mice and, in so doing, have effectively protected them from HIV infection.
Many infections, even those caused by antibiotic-sensitive bacteria, resist treatment. It’s paradox has vexed physicians for decades, and makes some infections impossible to cure. However, researchers have recently made the surprising discovery that interfering with the ability of biofilm-forming bacteria to sense starvation increases their susceptibility to antibiotics.
Rice University chemists have found a way to load more than two million tiny gold particles called nanorods into a single cancer cell. The breakthrough could speed development of cancer treatments that would use nanorods like tiny heating elements to cook tumors from the inside.
Improving health outcomes and quality of life for people living with type 2 diabetes are the goals of a project between a new research center at the University of Michigan and university, health, and public officials in North Carolina.
Staphylococcus aureus is rapidly becoming resistant to all antibiotic therapies. Studying DNA obtained from patients experiencing persistent blood stream infections, researchers in Australia found that just one small change in DNA can allow Staph to become resistant to the last-line antibiotic, vancomycin.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved a first-of-its-kind device, called MelaFind, that makes detailed digital images of skin growths and uses a computer to analyze them for signs of cancer, offering a sort of second opinion to doctors.
One of the most comprehensive analyses yet done of the ancient history of insect-borne disease concludes for the first time that malaria is not only native to the New World, but it has been present long before humans existed and has evolved through birds and monkeys.
The bacterium Micavibrio aeruginosavorus "makes its living" by seeking out prey—certain other bacteria—and then attaching itself to its victim's cell wall and essentially sucking out nutrients. This behavior has scientists excited about the possibility of using it to fight infectious diseases.
A new study by Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and other institutes traced genetic changes in the brain during a lifetime, has found surprising reversals after fetal development and connected to Alzheimer’s disease findings. Previous investigations have combined transcriptional and genetic analyses in human cell lines, but few have applied these techniques to human neural tissue.
Using highly potent antibodies isolated from HIV-positive people, researchers have recently begun to identify ways to broadly neutralize the many possible subtypes of HIV. Now, a team led by biologists at the California Institute of Technology has built upon one of these naturally occurring antibodies to create a stronger version they believe is a better candidate for clinical applications.
Mathew Maye’s laboratory at Syracuse University has invented a new way to attach DNA to gold nanoparticles. His method has inspired another Syracuse researcher, James Dabrowiak, to attach chemotherapy drugs to the DNA-coated gold, forming a potentially powerful way to attack cancer cells.
Among the complex molecular processes involved in the development of bacteria-borne disease is quorum sensing, the way bacteria communicate and coordinate collective behaviors. By studying how to inhibit quorum sensing, scientists may be able create antibacterial pharmaceuticals for a variety of ailments.
Early detection of breast cancer saves thousands of lives each year. But screening for breast cancer also produces false alarms, which can cause undue stress and costly medical bills. Now, a recent study using patient blood reveals a possible way to reduce the number of false alarms that arise during early screening.
A study conducted by Brown University researchers provides some new but qualified support for the idea that the immune system's response to allergies may reduce the risk of developing deadly brain tumors. In the study, subjects with somewhat elevated levels of antibodies produced to fight allergens were less likely to go on to develop bain tumors. This study adds to evidence from prior studies, but questions still remain.
Single-wall carbon nanotubes produced by SouthWest NanoTechnologies are being used by researchers in China for promising photothermal therapy to suppress tumor growth in breast cancer. Recent experiments with the nanotubes have minimized tumor growth with little damage to surrounding tissue.
A team of researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has developed a new technology that can measure multiple aspects of individual T cells' responses to HIV-infected cells, including their ability to kill them. The technology could make it easier to monitor and design vaccines against HIV.
A new study suggests that an estimated 100,000 people in India may have escaped HIV infection over five years thanks to one of the world's biggest prevention programs. Though the true impact of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s Avahan project is uncertain, its an encouraging sign that targeting high-risk groups remains vital even as more donors focus on treatment.
Using short snippets of RNA to turn off a specific gene in certain immune cells, scientists have shown that they can shut off the inflammation responsible for diseases such as atherosclerosis. This technique, known as RNA interference, offers a targeted way to stop inflammation and could be useful in treating not only atherosclerosis, but also other forms of heart disease as well as cancer.
Scientists at the University of Notre Dame have developed a special molecule that can out-compete allergens that attempt to attach to the type of white blood cell that is the source of allergic reactions.
Data from a clinical trial involving University of California, Los Angeles researchers suggest that a new therapy may potentially serve as a "functional cure" for HIV/AIDS. The therapy, called SB-728-T, involves the modification of both copies of a patient's CCR5 gene, which encodes the major co-receptor used by HIV to infect immune system cells.
Green tea may slow down weight gain and serve as another tool in the fight against obesity, according to Penn State University food scientists. In an animal study, obese mice that were fed a compound found in green tea along with a high-fat diet gained weight significantly more slowly than a control group of mice that did not receive the green tea supplement.
Researchers at Rutgers University and UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School have determined the structure of a protein that is the first line of defense in fighting viral infections including influenza, hepatitis C, West Nile, rabies, and measles.
Players of the video game Foldit, a protein modeling program, have unlocked the structure of CASP9, which is involved in the virus that cause simian AIDS. The breakthrough has eluded laboratory scientists for more than a decade.
Penicillin and its descendants once ruled supreme over bacteria. Then the bugs got stronger, and hospitals have reported bacterial infections so virulent that even powerful antibiotics held in reserve for these cases don't work. To create the next line of defense against the most drug-resistant pathogens, scientists at Argonne National Laboratory and Texas A&M University have decoded the structure of a protein that confers drug resistance against our best antibiotics.
A team of researchers from the University of Houston and St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital are working to develop improved screening methods to detect a potentially lethal, drug-resistant superbug that has made its way to Texas.