New York University physicists have developed a method that models biological cell-to-cell adhesion that could also have industrial applications. This system is an oil-in-water solution whose surface properties reproduce those found on biological cells.
When scientists think about the replication of information in chemistry, they usually have in mind something akin to what happens in living organisms when DNA gets copied: a double-stranded molecule that contains sequence information makes two new copies of the molecule. But researchers at the California Institute of Technology have now shown that a different mechanism can also be used to copy sequence information.
A seaweed considered a threat to the healthy growth of coral reefs in Hawaii may possess the ability to produce substances that could one day treat human diseases, a new study led by scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at University of California, San Diego has revealed.
University of Michigan researchers have proven that a special surface, free of biological contaminants, allows adult-derived stem cells to thrive and transform into multiple cell types. Their success brings stem cell therapies another step closer.
There's nothing like a new pair of eyeglasses to bring fine details into sharp relief. For scientists who study the large molecules of life from proteins to DNA, the equivalent of new lenses have come in the form of an advanced method for analyzing data from X-ray crystallography experiments. The findings could lead to new understanding of the molecules that drive processes in biology, medical diagnostics, nanotechnology, and other fields.
The scientific and technological literature is abuzz with nanotechnology and its manufacturing and medical applications. But it is in an area with a less glitzy aura—plant sciences—where nanotechnology advancements are contributing dramatically to agriculture. Researchers at Iowa State University have now demonstrated the ability to deliver proteins and DNA into plant cells, simultaneously.
Researchers in Germany have for years been studying fire beetles of the genus Melanophila and their sophisticated infrared sensors, which these pyrophilous insects use to detect forest fires. They have unraveled the functional principle of this photomechanical sensor and have started to work on a technical reconstruction.
In the course of its evolution, the architecture of the mouse brain may have barely changed. In fact, researchers point to it as a “living fossil” of brain development, preserving our ancestors’ neuronal circuits’ architecture. Comparative analysis now shows where those changes occurred after the extinction of dinosaurs and the growth of mammals.
The highly pathogenic hantavirus causes a condition known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), which has a case fatality rate of 35-40%. To help the fight against a disease that has no vaccine, U.S. Army scientists and industry collaborators have successfully protected laboratory animals from lethal hantavirus disease using a novel approach that combines DNA vaccines and duck eggs.
The current method of removing the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide from the flues of coal-fired power plants uses so much energy that no one bothers to use it. So says Roger Aines, principal investigator for a team that has developed an entirely new catalyst for separating out and capturing carbon dioxide, one that mimics a naturally occurring catalyst operating in our lungs.
Getting a shot at the doctor's office may become less painful in the not-too-distant future. Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers have engineered a device that delivers a tiny, high-pressure jet of medicine through the skin without the use of a hypodermic needle. The device can be programmed to deliver a range of doses to various depths—an improvement over similar jet-injection systems that are now commercially available.
A new collaboration between Oxford University and the Lausanne Museum of Zoology will use the latest genetic techniques to investigate organic remains that some have claimed belong to the 'Yeti' and other 'lost' hominid species.
Biomedical engineers at University of California, Davis have developed a microfluidic chip to test for latent tuberculosis. They hope the test will be cheaper, faster, and more reliable than current testing for the disease.
A biomedical informatics researcher who tracks dangerous viruses as they spread around the globe has restructured his innovative tracking software to promote even wider use of the program around the world.
One of the most important structures in a cell is the nuclear pore complex—a tiny yet complicated channel through which information flows in and out of the cell's nucleus, directing all other cell activity. Little is known about this vital cell structure, but a Massachusetts Institute of Technology biologist is trying to change that.
In a new study, investigators from the University of California, Los Angeles describe how they synthesized polymers to attach to proteins in order to stabilize them during shipping, storage, and other activities. The study findings suggest that these polymers could be useful in stabilizing protein formulations.
Catching a crocodile or alligator to obtain a blood sample for testing is often done at night by a boat or a canoe. A snout snare eases the process, but it’s still a nerve-wracking experience. The samples are for the first mapping project for crocodile and alligator genomes, and it’s also the among the first such efforts to be done on a reptile species.
Quantum physics and plant biology seem like two branches of science that could not be more different, but surprisingly they may in fact be intimately tied. Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory and the Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame used ultrafast spectroscopy to see what happens at the subatomic level during the very first stage of photosynthesis.
Tissue engineers can use mesenchymal stem cells derived from fat to make cartilage, bone, or more fat. The best cells to use are ones that are already likely to become the desired tissue. Brown University researchers have discovered that the mechanical properties of the stem cells can foretell what they will become, leading to a potential method of concentrating them for use in healing.
Hundreds of tiny hollow needles stick out of the membrane of a bacteria that causes cholera. These are treacherous tools that makes bacterial pathogens so dangerous. Researchers in the U.S. and Germany have now seen this structure in 3D detail at atomic resolution. The images may help drug researchers.
University of Iowa neuroscientist John Wemmie is interested in the effect of acid in the brain. His studies using new magnetic resonance imaging techniques suggest that increased acidity or low pH, in the brain is linked to panic disorders, anxiety, and depression. But his work also suggests that changes in acidity are important for normal brain activity too.
A collaboration between Lehigh University physicists and University of Miami biologists addresses an important fundamental question in basic cell biology: How do living cells figure out when and where to grow?
Plants rely on photoreceptors to activate internal chemical processes like germination and leaf growth. Theorizing that the light-absorbing component of the photoreceptor may be replaced by a chemically similar synthetic substance, scientist have for the first time shown that full growth of plants is possible in the complete absence of light.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) generally approves drug therapies faster and earlier than its counterparts in Canada and Europe, according to a new study by Yale University School of Medicine researchers. The study counters perceptions that the drug approval process in the U.S. is especially slow.
It doesn’t matter if it’s regular or decaf, a big new study find that coffee drinkers are a little more likely to live longer. The results from the largest study ever done on the issue, comes after years of waffling research on coffee and health, even some fear that java might raise the risk of heart disease.