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The Lead

New method helps portable detection of potent “bath salts” drugs

October 1, 2014 11:25 am | News | Comments

Despite being outlawed in 2012 in the U.S., the synthetic drugs known as "bath salts" are still readily available in some retail shops, on the Internet and on the streets. To help law enforcement, scientists are developing low-cost, disposable, mercury-free electrodes that could be the basis for the first portable, on-site testing device for identifying the drugs.

Join the best of the best in innovation

October 1, 2014 8:57 am | by Lindsay Hock, Managing Editor | News | Comments

The 52nd annual R&D 100 Awards event will present a series of panel discussions featuring...

Fat molecules influence form, function of key photosynthesis protein

September 30, 2014 7:48 am | by Elizabeth K. Gardner, Purdue Univ. | News | Comments

A mysterious space within a protein critical to photosynthesis is filled...

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Protein “map” could lead to potent new cancer drugs

September 26, 2014 8:55 am | News | Comments

Chemists in the U.K. have gained fresh insights into how a disease-causing enzyme makes changes to proteins and how it can be stopped. The scientists hope their findings will help them to design drugs that could target the enzyme, known as N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), and potentially lead to new treatments for cancer and inflammatory conditions.

Technology tracks tiniest pollutants in real time

September 26, 2014 8:23 am | by Brett Israel, Georgia Institute of Technology | News | Comments

Researchers may soon have a better idea of how tiny particles of pollution are formed in the atmosphere. These particles, called aerosols, are hazardous to human health and contribute to climate change, but researchers know little about how their properties are shaped by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Unraveling this chemistry could someday lead to more effective policies to protect human health and the Earth’s climate.

Clues to how people bounce back from surgery

September 25, 2014 10:48 am | News | Comments

One of the big frustrations of surgery is that little indicates whether the patient is a fast or slow healer, someone who feels normal in a week or is out of work for a month with lingering pain and fatigue. Now Stanford Univ. researchers have discovered that right after surgery, patients' blood harbors clues about how fast they'll bounce back. And it has to do with the activity of certain immune cells that play a key role in healing.

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Graphene sensor tracks down cancer biomarkers

September 19, 2014 4:33 pm | News | Comments

A new, ultrasensitive biosensor made from graphene has been used to detect molecules that indicate an increased risk of developing cancer. The biosensor has been shown to be more than five times more sensitive than bioassay tests currently in use, and was able to provide results in a matter of minutes, opening up the possibility of a rapid, point-of-care diagnostic tool for patients.

Nanoscience makes your wine better

September 18, 2014 1:13 pm | by Anne-Mette Siem, Aarhus Univ. | News | Comments

One sip of a perfectly poured glass of wine leads to an explosion of flavors in your mouth. Researchers in Denmark have now developed a nanosensor that can mimic what happens in your mouth when you drink wine. The sensor, which uses gold nanoparticles to act as a “mini-mouth”, measures how you experience the sensation of dryness in the wine.

Scientists discover RNA modifications in some unexpected places

September 16, 2014 11:40 am | by Matt Fearer, Whitehead Institute | News | Comments

Deploying sophisticated high-throughput sequencing technology, a team of Whitehead Institute and Broad Institute researchers have collaborated on a comprehensive, high-resolution mapping that confirms a post-transcriptional RNA modification called pseudouridylation does indeed occur naturally in messenger RNA. This is somewhat surprising finding using a new quantitative sequencing method.

EEG study findings reveal how fear is processed in the brain

September 16, 2014 8:51 am | News | Comments

Building on previous animal and human research, a new study has identified an electrophysiological marker for threat in the brain. The findings illustrate how fear arises in the brain when individuals are exposed to threatening images, and the study is the first to separate emotion from threat by controlling for the dimension of arousal, the emotional reaction provoked, whether positive or negative, in response to stimuli.

Novel method for portable detection of drugs

September 10, 2014 10:37 am | by American Chemical Society | News | Comments

Despite being outlawed in 2012 in the U.S., the synthetic drugs known as “bath salts”—which really aren’t meant for your daily bath—are still readily available in some retail shops, on the Internet and on the streets. To help law enforcement, scientists are developing a novel method that could be the basis for the first portable, on-site testing device for identifying the drugs.

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Thermo Fisher Scientific teams with reference labs on new European food regulation

September 4, 2014 8:50 am | News | Comments

European laboratories testing food for dioxins now have lower-cost, smaller-footprint alternatives for confirming levels of toxic contaminants, thanks to a new European Union regulation. Thermo Fisher Scientific worked closely with national reference labs in the EU to support the development of the new regulation, which permits use of gas chromatograph-triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometers (GC-MS/MS) for confirmation.

Handheld scanner could aid complete removal of brain tumors

September 3, 2014 1:09 pm | News | Comments

Cancerous brain tumors are notorious for growing back despite surgical attempts to remove them, and for leading to a dire prognosis for patients. But scientists are developing a new way to try to root out malignant cells during surgery so fewer or none get left behind to form new tumors. The technology relies on a Raman scanner that can read injected nanoprobes.

Engineers develop new sensor to detect tiny individual nanoparticles

September 2, 2014 8:51 am | by Tony Fitzpatrick, Washington Univ. in St. Louis | News | Comments

A team of researchers in the U.S. and China have developed a new sensor that can detect and count nanoparticles, at sizes as small as 10 nm, one at a time. The researchers say the sensor, which is a Raman microlaser sensor in a silicon dioxide chip that does not need rare-earth ions to achieve high resolution, could potentially detect much smaller particles, viruses and small molecules.

Nanocosmos of cells under the magnifying glass

August 26, 2014 3:56 pm | by Gunnar Bartsch, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg | News | Comments

Scientists in Germany have managed to take a unique look at the membranes of human cells using a new technique called dSTORM: direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. This is a specific form of high-resolution fluorescence microscopy, and it makes individual saccharified proteins and lipids visible at the molecular level.

A surprising new role for natural killer T cells

August 25, 2014 9:25 am | News | Comments

In the past, immune cells were clearly divided into innate cells, which respond to attacks in a non-specific way, and adaptive cells, which learn to recognize new antigens and gain the ability to rapidly react to later attacks. Researchers at RIKEN in Japan have discovered that is not always the case, having found that killer T cells previously thought to be innate, and thus short-lived, can remain in the lung for up to nine months.

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NMR using Earth’s magnetic field

August 20, 2014 8:19 am | by Rachel Berkowitz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

Earth’s magnetic field, a familiar directional indicator over long distances, is routinely probed in applications ranging from geology to archaeology. Now it has provided the basis for a technique which might, one day, be used to characterize the chemical composition of fluid mixtures in their native environments.

New handheld device uses lasers, sound for melanoma imaging

August 7, 2014 9:39 am | News | Comments

Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer type in the United States. A new handheld device may help diagnosis and treatment efforts for the disease. It uses lasers and sound waves and is the first that can be used directly on a patient to accurately measure how deep a melanoma tumor extends into the skin.

R&D Life Sciences Overview

August 6, 2014 10:07 am | by Lindsay Hock, Managing Editor | Thermo Fisher Scientific, Shimadzu Scientific Instruments, Protea Biosiences , Agilent Technologies Inc. | Articles | Comments

Life science researchers are benefiting from easy-to-use, ultra-fast, automated and integrated platforms that address specific application needs. These platforms combine hardware, software and reagents into integrated, push-button analysis systems capable of transforming workflows which once took several days into minutes.

Enhanced Sample Prep

August 6, 2014 9:21 am | by Lindsay Hock, Managing Editor | Articles | Comments

Sample preparation is a critical step in the analytical process. Studies report that sample prep can represent about 60% of a laboratory technician’s time and also forms one of the principal sources of error. Many techniques to conduct sample prep are available to researchers, such as filtration, digestion, dialysis, liquid/liquid extraction and solid phase extraction.

Scientists solve 2,000-year-old Terracotta Army mystery

August 4, 2014 10:12 am | News | Comments

China's first emperor ordered the building of a glorious underground palace complex, mirroring his imperial capital, that would last for an eternity. Protecting this underworld palace was his imperial guard, cast in terracotta. Efforts to preserve the 1974 archaeological find have been hampered by failures to pinpoint the binding material used in applying pigments to the soldiers. Mass spectrometry studies have recently solved this mystery.

New paper describes how DNA avoids damage from UV light

July 31, 2014 11:42 am | by Evelyn Boswell, Montana State Univ. | News | Comments

In the same week that the U.S. surgeon general issued a lengthy report about the dangers of skin cancer, researchers at Montana State Univ. published a paper breaking new ground on how DNA responds when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. The study, made possible by femtosecond lasers used for ultrafast spectroscopy, showed how DNA transfers electrons when excited by UV light.

Breakthrough in understanding of important blood protein

July 31, 2014 10:07 am | News | Comments

The human body contains a unique protein that has the unusual property of destroying itself after a few hours of existence. Called PAI-1, it affects many physiological functions, including the dissolving of coagulated blood. Recent research in Denmark has shed light on how PAI-1 changes shape. This is considered important because the protein has one of the largest shape changes in the known world of proteins.

Ames Lab home to first-in-nation DNP-NMR instrument

July 31, 2014 9:51 am | by Breehan Gerleman Lucchesi, Communications Specialist, Ames Laboratory | News | Comments

Ames Laboratory is now the home to a dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer that helps scientists understand how individual atoms are arranged in materials. Ames Laboratory’s DNP-NMR is the first to be used for materials science and chemistry in the U.S.

New assay tool characterizes plant sugar transporters

July 28, 2014 4:54 pm | News | Comments

A powerful new tool that could help advance the genetic engineering of “fuel” crops bioenergy, has been developed by researchers with the Joint BioEnergy Institute. Their new, unique assay enabled them to analyze nucleotide sugar transporter activities in Arabidopsis, a promising source of plant biomass, and characterize a family of six nucleotide sugar transporters that has never before been described.

Chemist develops x-ray vision for quality assurance

July 25, 2014 6:57 am | by Iben Julie Schmidt, Technical Univ. of Denmark | News | Comments

A new method that uses x-rays for the rapid identification of substances present in an indeterminate powder has been developed by a scientist in Denmark. The new technique has the capacity to recognize advanced biological molecules such as proteins, which makes it potentially important in both food production and the pharmaceutical industry, where it opens up new opportunities for the quality assurance of protein-based medicines.

Instrument enables high-speed chemical imaging of tissues

July 23, 2014 8:06 am | News | Comments

A research team from NIST, working with the Cleveland Clinic, has demonstrated a dramatically improved technique for analyzing biological cells and tissues based on characteristic molecular vibration "signatures." The new NIST technique is an advanced form of the widely used spontaneous Raman spectroscopy, but one that delivers signals that are 10,000 times stronger than obtained from spontaneous Raman scattering.

Reconstructing an animal’s development cell by cell

July 21, 2014 9:36 am | News | Comments

Janelia Research Campus experts have built a new computational method that can essentially automate much of the time-consuming process of reconstructing an animal's developmental building plan cell by cell. Using image data obtaining using a sophisticated form of light sheet microscopy, the tool can track the movement of cells in an animal’s body in 3-D.

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