An international team led by evolutionary biologist and Rutgers University professor Debashish Bhattacharya has shed light on the early events leading to photosynthesis. In sequencing the 70 million base pair nuclear genome of the ancient one-celled alga Cyanophora , the team was able to trace the origin of the underlying mechanics of photosynthesis further than ever before.
The TRR 61 project has been keeping about 150 scientists in Germany and China busy since 2008. The goal is to understand how large natural systems, such as biorganisms are assembled from numerous diverse small molecular structures. The first papers from the first stage of the project, which looks at self-assembly mechanisms, have recently been published.
X-ray crystallography has become crucial to modern biological imaging, but large single crystals for high-quality data acquisition are difficult to grow. Plus, radiation damages delicate samples. A new technique, femtosecond diffraction imaging, could solve both problems at once and still deliver high-quality images.
Infrared spectroscopy has been used in combination with traditional microscopy for more than 25 years, but has always been extremely time-consuming, requiring hours to resolve a sample area less than one square millimeter. The addition of multi-element detectors, along with Fourier transform technology, as described in a recent Bruker Optics white paper, enables a detection to assess all points on an image simultaneously, saving considerable time.
Labeling requirements for fats and oils under U.S. Food & Drug Administration guidelines are stringent. Values for iodine, free fatty acids, anisidine value, and even trans fatty acids are all mandatory. According to a recent white paper from Bruker Optics, the traditional analyses for these substances are designed for just one specific parameter and tend to be tedious. Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry can identify multiple components with a single, fast measurement.
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the most widely used method for monitoring industrial-scale fermentation. But HPLC requires a lot of time, a high degree of skill, and can be expensive in the long-term. In addition, it can only analyze soluble components. Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry, as detailed in a Bruker Optics white paper, can perform the same analysis with no waste and much greater speed.
Because of both strict government specification and tax rates, distillers must be sure their finished products contain the correct alcohol content. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy solutions from Bruker Optics, as detailed in a recent white paper, can ease this common bottleneck for laboratory analysis, which typically involves the time-consuming and potentially inaccurate density meter analyzer method.
The largest expense to a distillery or a fuel ethanol plant, corn's value is highly contingent on its quality, especially with regard to moisture. However, the grain goes largely unmonitored through both industries. A new white paper from Bruker Optics details the steps by which near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can be used to quickly identify and verify moisture targets for corn grain, as well other important metrics such as oil content.
International NIR Global Operating Technologies (INGOT) is a set of universal near-infrared (NIR) calibrations for the analysis of raw materials and finished products in the feed industry. A new white paper from Bruker Optics details how INGOT packages for Bruker's MPA and Matrix-I Fourier transform NIR (FT-NIR) spectrometers can be used to optimize recipes and account for parameters such as moisture, oil, protein, fiber, and ash.
Building calibration data takes effort, which is why many laboratories stay with older monochromator-based near-infrared (NIR) instruments instead of upgrading to more accurate Fourier transform-based systems (FT-NIR). A recent white paper from Bruker Optics details the possibility of transferring old calibrations from a monochromator system to an FT-NIR system such as Bruker's MPA.
Bruker Optics has published a method for on-line monitoring of edible fats and oils. Iodine value is important to these substances because it affects the viscosity and susceptibility to oxidation. Performed by a Fourier transform near-infrared spectrometer coupled with specially designed fiber optic probes, the methodology described in a recent Bruker Optics white paper speeds up analysis, reduces production down time, and achieves product consistency.
Plant and computer scientists can now study the underground world of plants with more accuracy and clarity thanks to the adaption of X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT). The method has been used in the U.K. to examine the shape and branching patterns of roots in soil. The new technique should improve the chances of breeding better crop varieties and increasing yields.
Biosensors used in medical diagnostics are typically very specific, detecting within a fixed dynamic ranges. Researchers recently designed a new type of biosensor that copies nature’s approach, which is to employ many different sensors all looking for a common target over a wide range.
According to a recent Rice University study, plants make predawn preparations to fend off hungry caterpillars. Using powerful genetic analysis tools that allow them to monitor precisely the accumulation of certain hormones, researchers found that plant can anticipate events and respond to them with the help of circadian-regulated genes.
Recent studies using the Canadian Light Source synchrotron have revealed, for the first time, one of the molecular mechanisms that regulates the beating of heart cells by controlling the movement of sodium in out of the cells—and what calcium has to do with it.
It’s a mystery that has puzzled researchers for years: In a cell undergoing mitotic cell division, what internal signals cause its chromosomes to align on a center axis? Using fluorescence microscopy, Tomomi Kiyomitsu at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research found the solution by observing something no one had noticed before.
In a startling finding, researchers at the Salk Institiute have recently discovered that only a few proteins on the leading edge of a motor neuron's axon—its outgoing electrical "wire"—and within the extracellular soup it travels through guide the nerve as it emerges from the spinal cord.
In a recent study, participants played a video game in which they learned the locations of stores in a virtual city. The study showed that they recalled the locations better also received a painless boost from tiny electrodes buried deep inside their brains. The finding may have uses in treating Alzheimer’s disease.
Individual cells modified to act as sensors using fluorescence are already useful tools in biochemistry, but now they can add good timing to their resumé, thanks in part to NIST. With the added capability to track the timing of dynamic biochemical reactions, cell sensors become more useful for many studies, such as measurements of protein folding or neural activity.
An agreement to complete the development of a microplate imaging system invented by Scripps Research Institute engineers has been formed between the institute and Brooks Life Science Systems, a division of Brooks Automation, Inc. The system is intended for biotech and pharmaceutical companies performing high-throughput screening.
Biologists have found new evidence of why mice, people and other vertebrate animals carry thousands of varieties of genes to make immune-system proteins named MHCs—even though some of those genes make vertebrate animals susceptible to infections and to autoimmune diseases.
In 2010, Svante Pääbo and his colleagues decoded the genetic information from small fragment of a human finger bone discovered in Denisova Cave in southern Siberia. Now, the Leipzig, Germany-based team has develop sensitive techniques to allow them to sequence every position in the genome of this extinct group of humans using less than 10 mg of bone.
Researchers reported at a recent Orthopedic Research Society meeting that orthopedic implants "dip-coated" with modular growth factors can stimulate bone and blood vessel growth in sheep. This new modular approach, the report suggests, might be able to stimulate bone formation without side effects.
Using a stimulated emission depletion microscopy technology developed by a Max Planck Institute researcher in Germany, scientists have, for the first time, managed to record detailed live images inside the brain of a living mouse. These images, resolving to a previously impossible 70 nm, have made the minute structures visible which allow nerve cells to communicate with each other.
CRAIC Technologies Inc. has introduced its Scientific Concierge Service. Offered to CRAIC customers and prospective customers, the service is staffed with a support team who can guide them through their purchase and coordinate installation, delivery, and training.