Texas Advanced Computing Center recently reported the results of several massive numerical simulations charting the forces of the universe in its first hundreds of millions of years. The study, which used some of the world's most powerful supercomputers, has refined our understanding of how the first galaxies formed, and, in particular, how metals in the stellar nurseries influenced the characteristics of the stars in the first galaxies.
Researchers at Tyndall National Institute in Ireland have produced the first ever atom-by-atom simulation of nanoscale film growth by atomic layer deposition (ALD), a thin-film technology used in the production of silicon chips. The accomplishment required the acquisition of the complete set of hundreds of ALD reactions at the quantum mechanical level.
The same physics that gives tornadoes their ferocious stability lies at the heart of new Univ. of Washington research, and could lead to a better understanding of nuclear dynamics in studying fission, superconductors and the workings of neutron stars. The work seeks to clarify what Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers witnessed when in 2013 they named a mysterious phenomenon.
The concept of a hypersonic aircraft that takes off from the runway and doesn’t need a rest, inspection or repair is still a unbuilt dream, but Univ. of Cincinnati researchers are developing the validation metrics that could help predict the success or failure of such a model before it is even built, as test data becomes available from component, to sub-system, to the completely assembled air vehicle.
Calculations and simulations made about a year ago showed for the first time that the thermodynamic flow in an internal combustion engine could be reproduced using individual ions. Scientists in Germany are now working on a heat engine consisting of just a single ion that could be far more efficient than a car engine or a coal-fired power plant.
Sandia National Laboratories is developing computer models that show how radioactive waste interacts with soil and sediments, shedding light on waste disposal and how to keep contamination away from drinking water. Researchers have studied the geochemistry of contaminants such as radioactive materials and toxic heavy metals, including lead, arsenic and cadmium. But laboratory testing of soils is difficult.
Researchers simulating how certain bacteria run electrical current through tiny molecular wires have discovered a secret nature uses for electron travel. The results are key to understanding how the bacteria do chemistry in the ground, and will help researchers use them in microbial fuel cells, batteries or for turning waste into electricity.
Researchers based at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Univ. of Tennessee have discovered a molecular “switch” in a receptor that controls cell behavior. Researchers identified the molecular switch using detailed molecular dynamics simulations on a computer called Anton, built by D. E. Shaw Research in New York City.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have combined ultra-fast time-resolved experimental measurements with theory to reveal how an explosive responds to a high-impact shock. The work involved advances in both ultra-fast experimental shock wave methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation techniques, and the combination of experiment and simulation is a milestone in understanding chemical initiation and detonation.
Stanford Univ. scientists may have solved the mystery of what drives a type of earthquake that occurs deep within the Earth and accounts for one in four quakes worldwide. Known as intermediate-depth earthquakes, these temblors originate farther down inside the Earth than shallow earthquakes, which take place in the uppermost layer of the Earth's surface, called the crust.
For some microbes, the motto for growth is not so much “every cell for itself,” but rather, “all for one and one for all.” Researchers have found that cells in a bacterial colony grow in a way that benefits the community as a whole. That is, while an individual cell may divide in the presence of plentiful resources to benefit itself, when a cell is a member of a larger colony, it may choose instead to grow in a more cooperative fashion.
Multiphysics software simulations are used by biomedical equipment developers to reliably design complex mechanisms for enhancing the human physical condition. These medical devices can include tools for treating cancers, enhancing hearing and treating chronic back pain.
A researcher team from Spain and Italy say that when envisioning in vivo microrobots of the future, we should forget cogwheels, pistons and levers. These miniature robots will be soft, and behave much like euglenids, tiny unicellular aquatic animals. Their work in studying these creatures have given them insights on how to design soft robots with effective mechanical structures.
Researchers have combined cutting-edge experimental techniques and computer simulations to find a new way of predicting how water dissolves crystalline structures like those found in natural stone and cement. The research could have wide-ranging impacts in diverse areas, including water quality and planning, environmental sustainability, corrosion resistance and cement construction.
Two German researchers have used a simple energy balance analysis to explain how the Earth’s water cycle responds differently to heating by sunlight than it does to warming due to a stronger atmospheric greenhouse effect. This difference, their work shows, implies that reflecting sunlight to reduce temperatures may have unwanted effects on the Earth’s rainfall patterns.
The Office of Naval Research is demonstrating the Fleet Integrated Synthetic Training/Testing Facility (FIST2FAC) in Florida this week, showing how gaming technology is helping naval forces develop operations strategies in a hassle-free way.
According to recent Princeton Univ.-led research that simulated an emissions-free Earth, the carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere could continue to warm our planet for hundreds of years, even if emission came to a sudden halt. The study suggests that it might take a lot less carbon than previously thought to reach the global temperature scientists deem unsafe.
In a recent study presented at the Supercomputing Conference SC13 in Denver that may earn them the Gordon Bell Prize, physicists from Germany have simulated the motion of billions of electrons within astrophysical plasma jets and calculated the light they emit. Tracking the movements of nearly a hundred billion particles required the help of a high-performance computer.
Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory are investigating the complex relationships between the spread of the HIV virus in a population (epidemiology) and the actual, rapid evolution of the virus (phylogenetics) within each patient’s body. The team models the uninfected population using traditional differential equations on the computer; this is done for computational speed, because an agent-based component is much more demanding.
A brain stimulation technique that is used to treat tough cases of depression could be considerably improved with a new headpiece designed by Univ. of Michigan engineers. Computer simulations showed that the headpiece—a square array of 64 circular metallic coils—could one day help researchers and doctors hit finer targets in the brain that are twice as deep as they can reach today, and without causing pain.
The best prediction meteorologists can accomplish for heat waves is about 10 days. An earlier warning would help cities prepare for the heat wave, arrange to open up cooling centers and check on the elderly. Recent work using statistical data and computer simulations may have revealed a way to predict some killer heat waves up to three weeks in advance.
Honeycomb sandwich panels, with their high strength-to-weight ratios, have significant advantages over monocoque construction for certain applications. Twin-skinned plates/shells with a honeycomb core are widely used in the aerospace industry for structures such as aircraft fuselages, engine cowlings and impact protection shields.
Oscilloscopes display and measure the wave shape of an electrical signal. High-performance oscilloscopes, which are capable of measuring signals at very high frequencies, are primarily used in high-speed applications. Agilent Technologies recently released the Infiniium 90000 Q-Series oscilloscope, which is the world’s highest bandwidth commercially available real-time oscilloscope and the first to reach the 60-GHz barrier.
The modeling and simulation of various manufacturing processes is important because, in many cases, it’s impractical or even impossible to measure the specific operating parameters involved that contribute to the resulting products. This is particularly true in high-temperature processes like blast furnaces or the welding of large metal structures such as those used in shipbuilding and reactor vessels.
A new study set out to use numerical simulations to validate previous theoretical predictions describing materials exhibiting so-called antiferromagneting characteristics. A recently discovered theory shows that the ordering temperature depends on two factors—namely the spin-wave velocity and the staggered magnetization. The simulations match these theoretical predictions.