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Moving silicon atoms in graphene with atomic precision

September 15, 2014 10:34 am | Videos | Comments

In recent years, it has become possible to see directly individual atoms using electron microscopy, especially in graphene. Using electron microscopy and computer simulations, an international team has recently shown how an electron beam can move silicon atoms through the graphene lattice without causing damage.

The shadow of a disease

September 15, 2014 8:45 am | News | Comments

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New digital map reveals stunning hidden archaeology of Stonehenge

September 10, 2014 10:03 am | Videos | Comments

A high-tech survey reveals that there is more to...

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Scientist explores birth of a planet

September 8, 2014 1:53 pm | News | Comments

Dr. John Carr, a scientist at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, is part of an international team that has found what they believe is evidence of a planet forming around a star about 335 light years from Earth. They made the chance discovery while studying the protoplanetary disk of gas around a distant forming star using a technique called spectro-astrometry, which allows astronomers to detect small changes in the position of moving gas.

Seeing clearly through a liquid

September 8, 2014 8:33 am | News | Comments

Accurately examining materials in liquids using electron microscopy is a difficult task for scientists, as electron beams perturb the sample and induce artifacts. Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Univ. of California, Davis have demonstrated that in in situ liquid experiments, the choice of electron beam energy has a strong effect that goes far beyond merely increasing the concentration of reducing radicals.

Shining light on brain circuits to study learning, memory

September 8, 2014 8:04 am | by Robert Sanders, UC Berkeley | News | Comments

Univ. of California, Berkeley neuroscientists plan to use light to tweak the transmission of signals in the brain to learn more about how the mouse brain and presumably the human brain process information. Last month, the promising optogenetics research project was awarded one of 36 new $300,000, two-year grants from the National Science Foundation in support of the BRAIN Initiative.

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Spatial movie production brings full 3-D to picture and sound

September 5, 2014 12:30 pm | News | Comments

Nowadays, video special effects are in demand, and even more so if they’re in 3-D. A new system called OmniCam360, being presented at the International Broadcasting Convention in Amsterdam next week, is able to use depth maps generated by 16 or more cameras to create a virtual camera, similar to movies that are entirely computer-generated. The addition of wave field synthesis allows the sound to match the video in 3-D.

Banked blood grows stiffer with age, study finds

September 5, 2014 12:13 pm | by Liz Ahlberg, Univ. of Illinois | News | Comments

It may look like fresh blood and flow like fresh blood, but the longer blood is stored, the less it can carry oxygen into the tiny microcapillaries of the body. Using advanced optical techniques, researchers measured the stiffness of the membrane surrounding red blood cells over time. They found that, even though the cells retain their shape and hemoglobin content, the membranes get stiffer, steadily decreasing the cells’ functionality.

2-D or 3-D? That is the question

September 5, 2014 8:04 am | News | Comments

The increased visual realism of 3-D films is believed to offer viewers a more vivid and lifelike experience than 2-D because it more closely approximates real life. However, psychology researchers at the Univ. of Utah, among those who use film clips routinely in the laboratory to study patients’ emotional conditions, have found that there is no significant difference between the two formats.

Mystery of Death Valley's moving rocks solved

September 2, 2014 8:45 am | News | Comments

For years scientists have theorized about how large rocks, some weighing hundreds of pounds, zigzag across Racetrack Playa in Death Valley National Park, leaving long trails etched in the earth. Now two researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the Univ. of California, San Diego, have photographed these "sailing rocks" being blown by light winds across the former lake bed.

Pebble-sized particles may jump-start planet formation

August 27, 2014 12:10 pm | News | Comments

Astronomers using the Green Bank Telescope have discovered that filaments of star-forming gas near the Orion Nebula may be brimming with pebble-size particles: planetary building blocks 100 to 1,000 times larger than the dust grains typically found around protostars. If confirmed, these dense ribbons of rocky material may well represent a new, mid-size class of interstellar particles that could help jump-start planet formation.

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Nanocosmos of cells under the magnifying glass

August 26, 2014 3:56 pm | by Gunnar Bartsch, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg | News | Comments

Scientists in Germany have managed to take a unique look at the membranes of human cells using a new technique called dSTORM: direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. This is a specific form of high-resolution fluorescence microscopy, and it makes individual saccharified proteins and lipids visible at the molecular level.

Do we live in a 2-D hologram?

August 26, 2014 1:16 pm | by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory | News | Comments

A unique experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory called the Holometer has started collecting data that will answer some mind-bending questions about our universe—including whether we live in a hologram. Much like characters on a television show would not know that their seemingly 3-D world exists only on a 2-D screen, we could be clueless that our 3-D space is just an illusion.

Quenching one's thirst for knowledge by studying beer foam

August 25, 2014 7:46 am | by Sarah Perrin, EPFL | News | Comments

A mechanical engineering student at EPFL in Switzerland wanted to understand the reason behind the formation of a “foam volcano” after tapping the neck of a bottle of beer. He studied the phenomenon with a high-speed camera and compared it to the outcome of applying the same action to sparkling water. His work offers insights into the behavior of cavitation nuclei.

Flattening Yields Faster CT

August 20, 2014 2:14 pm | Award Winners

In 2012, more than 85 million computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in the U.S. Of these, 16% were thoracic scans. Up to now, this has been done manually and sequentially in what is a tedious, lengthy and error-prone process. Engineers at Siemens Corporate Technology and Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography have launched a new solution to save radiologists time and increase diagnostic confidence for thoracic bone assessment.

Bubbling down: Discovery suggests surprising uses for common bubbles

August 20, 2014 8:29 am | by John Sullivan, Office of Engineering Communications, Princeton Univ. | News | Comments

Anyone who has ever had a glass of fizzy soda knows that bubbles can throw tiny particles into the air. But in a finding with wide industrial applications, Princeton Univ. researchers have demonstrated that the bursting bubbles push some particles down into the liquid as well.

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The beetle’s white album

August 15, 2014 9:31 am | News | Comments

The physical properties of the ultra-white scales on certain species of beetle could be used to make whiter paper, plastics and paints, while using far less material than is used in current manufacturing methods. Current technology is not able to produce a coating as white as these beetles can in such a thin layer, and spectroscopic analyses are revealing how this colorization is achieved through a dense complex network of chitin.

New tool makes a single picture worth a thousand—and more—images

August 14, 2014 5:57 pm | by Sarah Yang, Univ. of California, Berkeley | Videos | Comments

Software developed by Univ. of California, Berkeley computer scientists seeks to tame the vast amount of visual data in the world by generating a single photo that can represent massive clusters of images. This tool can give users the photographic gist of a kid on Santa’s lap, housecats, or brides and grooms at their weddings. It works by generating an image that literally averages the key features of the other photos.

Photo editing algorithm changes weather, seasons automatically

August 11, 2014 8:27 am | Videos | Comments

A computer algorithm being developed by Brown Univ. researchers lets users instantly change the weather, time of day, season or other features in outdoor photos with simple text commands. Machine learning and a clever database make it possible. A paper describing the work will be presented at SIGGRAPH 2014.

Photo editing tool enables object images to be manipulated in 3-D

August 5, 2014 5:59 pm | News | Comments

Editors of photos routinely resize objects, or move them up, down or sideways, but Carnegie Mellon Univ. researchers are adding an extra dimension to photo editing by enabling editors to turn or flip objects any way they want, even exposing surfaces not visible in the original photograph.

Extracting audio from visual information

August 4, 2014 12:17 pm | by Larry Hardesty, MIT News Office | Videos | Comments

Researchers at MIT, Microsoft, and Adobe have developed an algorithm that can reconstruct an audio signal by analyzing minute vibrations of objects depicted in video. In one set of experiments, they were able to recover intelligible speech from the vibrations of a potato-chip bag photographed from 15 feet away through soundproof glass.

NASA’s IBEX and Voyager spacecraft drive advances in outer heliosphere research

August 4, 2014 11:52 am | News | Comments

The million-mile-per-hour solar wind pushed out by the Sun inflates a giant bubble in the interstellar medium called the heliosphere, which envelops the Earth and the other planets. At the 40th International Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Scientific Assembly in Moscow this week, scientists highlighted an impressive list of achievements in researching the outer heliosphere, which barely registered as a field of research ten years ago.

FEI reports new advances in neuroscience in collaboration with NIH

August 4, 2014 11:43 am | News | Comments

Using cryo-electron microscopy technology from FEI Corp., researchers at the NIH-FEI Living Lab for Structural Biology have determined the structural mechanism by which glutamate receptors participate in the transmission of signals between neurons in the brain. The findings suggest a major breakthrough: that the determination of membrane proteins may no longer be limited by size or the need for crystallization.

MRI for quantum simulation and spin diagnostics

August 4, 2014 10:24 am | by S. Kelley and E. Edwards, Joint Quantum Institute | News | Comments

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is best-known for its use in medicine, but because MRI operates by quantum principles it translates to other quantum systems. Recently, physicists at the Joint Quantum Institute have executed an MRI-like diagnostic on a crystal of interacting quantum spins. The technique reveals many features of their system, such as the spin-spin interaction strengths and the energies of various spin configurations.

NASA-funded x-ray instrument settles interstellar debate

July 30, 2014 9:42 am | News | Comments

New findings from a NASA-funded instrument have resolved a decades-old puzzle about a fog of low-energy x-rays observed over the entire sky. Thanks to refurbished detectors first flown on a NASA sounding rocket in the 1970s, astronomers have now confirmed the long-held suspicion that much of this glow stems from a region of million-degree interstellar plasma known as the local hot bubble, or LHB.

Vision-correcting display makes reading glasses so yesterday

July 30, 2014 9:00 am | by Sarah Yang, UC Berkeley | Videos | Comments

What if computer screens had glasses instead of the people staring at the monitors? That concept is not too far afield from technology being developed by UC Berkeley computer and vision scientists. They are developing computer algorithms to compensate for an individual’s visual impairment, and creating vision-correcting displays that enable users to see text and images clearly without wearing eyeglasses or contact lenses.

New gadget helps the vision impaired to read graphs

July 29, 2014 10:47 am | News | Comments

An affordable digital reading system invented by researchers in Australia now allows people who are blind to read more than just words. The device works by using pattern recognition technology and other methods on any document to identify images, graphs, maths or text. From here it is then converted to audio format with navigation markup.

New tools help neuroscientists analyze big data

July 28, 2014 4:45 pm | News | Comments

Big data can mean big headaches for scientists. A new library of software tools from Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Janelia Research Campus speeds analysis of data sets so large and complex they would take days or weeks to analyze on a single workstation, even if a single workstation could do it at all. The new tool, Thunder, should help interpret data that holds new insights into how the brain works.

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