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Sea-level study shows signs of things to come

October 2, 2012 3:34 am | News | Comments

Our greenhouse gas emissions up to now have triggered an irreversible warming of the Earth that will cause sea levels to rise for thousands of years to come, new research has show. The results come from a study which sought to model sea-level changes over millennial timescales, taking into account all of the Earth's land ice and the warming of the oceans.

Georgia Tech awarded $6 million to improve safety of nuclear reactors

October 1, 2012 10:39 am | News | Comments

The Georgia Institute of Technology has won a $6 million federal grant to design improvements that strengthen the performance and safety of nuclear systems beyond today's capabilities. The three-year project will engage universities, industry partners, and international organizations to develop a novel concept of a light water reactor with inherent safety features.

Scientists find missing link between players in the epigenetic code

October 1, 2012 4:03 am | News | Comments

As researchers have uncovered more and more epigenetic tags, they have begun to wonder how they are all connected. Now, research from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine has established the first link between the two most fundamental epigenetic tags—histone modification and DNA methylation—in humans.

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New study says nanoparticles don't penetrate the skin

October 1, 2012 3:46 am | News | Comments

Research by scientists at the University of Bath is challenging claims that nanoparticles in medicated and cosmetic creams are able to transport and deliver active ingredients deep inside the skin. The study discovered that even the tiniest of nanoparticles did not penetrate the skin's surface.

Method monitors semiconductor etching as it happens

October 1, 2012 3:26 am | News | Comments

University of Illinois researchers have a new, low-cost method to carve delicate features onto semiconductor wafers using light—and watch as it happens. The researchers' new technique can monitor a semiconductor's surface as it is etched, in real time, with nanometer resolution, using a special type of microscope that uses two beams of light to precisely measure topography.

Bioengineers design rapid diagnostic tests inspired by nature

September 28, 2012 7:12 am | News | Comments

By mimicking nature's own sensing mechanisms, bioengineers have designed inexpensive medical diagnostic tests that take only a few minutes to perform. The rapid and easy-to-use diagnostic test consists of a nanometer-scale DNA "switch" that can quickly detect antibodies specific to a wide range of diseases.

Probing the mysteries of cracks, stresses

September 28, 2012 6:28 am | by David L. Chandler, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Diving into a pool from a few feet up allows you to enter the water smoothly and painlessly, but jumping from a bridge can lead to a fatal impact. The water is the same in each case, so why is the effect of hitting its surface so different? This seemingly basic question is at the heart of complex research by a team at Massachusetts Institute of Technology that studied how materials react to stresses, including impacts. The findings could help explain phenomena as varied as the breakdown of concrete under sudden stress and the effects of corrosion on various metal surfaces.

Measuring the universe's 'exit door'

September 27, 2012 12:06 pm | by Jennifer Chu, MIT News Office | News | Comments

The point of no return: In astronomy, it's known as a black hole. Black holes that can be billions of times more massive than our sun may reside at the heart of most galaxies. Such supermassive black holes are so powerful that activity at their boundaries can ripple throughout their host galaxies. Now, an international team, has, for the first time, measured the radius of a black hole at the center of a distant galaxy.

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Bioengineers introduce 'Bi-Fi, the biological Internet

September 27, 2012 11:32 am | News | Comments

If you were a bacterium, the virus M13 might seem innocuous enough. It insinuates more than it invades, setting up shop like a freeloading house guest, not a killer. Once inside it makes itself at home, eating your food, texting indiscriminately. Recently, however, bioengineers at Stanford University have given M13 a bit of a makeover; they have parasitized the parasite and harnessed M13's key attributes to create what might be termed as the biological Internet, or "Bi-Fi."

'Transient electronics' dissolve in body, environment

September 27, 2012 11:01 am | News | Comments

Tiny, fully biocompatible electronic devices that are able to dissolve harmlessly into their surroundings after functioning for a precise amount of time have been created by a research team led by biomedical engineers. Dubbed "transient electronics," the new class of silk-silicon devices promises a generation of medical implants that never need surgical removal, as well as environmental monitors and consumer electronics that can become compost rather than trash.

Scientists bring the heat to refine biofuel production

September 27, 2012 9:02 am | News | Comments

Perhaps inspired by Arizona's blazing summers, Arizona State University scientists have developed a new method that relies on heat to improve the yield and lower the costs of high-energy biofuels production, making renewable energy production more of an everyday reality.

Hydrogen beam injector guides plasma physics research

September 27, 2012 6:39 am | News | Comments

The Madison Symmetric Torus, a leading piece of equipment in plasma physics research for more than 20 years, recently gained a new capability with the installation of a neutral beam injector. The addition allows University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers to delve further into the basic properties of plasmas, which are important in astrophysics research as well as numerous other applications.

Invisible barrier wards off metal corrosion

September 27, 2012 5:35 am | News | Comments

A coating so thin it's invisible to the human eye has been shown to make copper nearly 100 times more resistant to corrosion, creating tremendous potential for metal protection even in harsh environments. Researchers from Monash University and Rice University say these findings could mean paradigm changes in the development of anticorrosion coatings using extremely thin graphene films.

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Research yields promising advance in solar cells based on nanocarbon

September 27, 2012 4:04 am | News | Comments

An exciting advance in solar cell technology developed at the University of Kansas has produced the world's most efficient photovoltaic cells made from nanocarbons, materials that have the potential to drop the costs of PV technology in the future.

Controlling behavior, remotely

September 27, 2012 3:33 am | News | Comments

In the quest to understand how the brain turns sensory input into behavior, Harvard University scientists have crossed a major threshold. Using precisely targeted lasers, researchers have been able to take over a tiny animal's brain, instruct it to turn in any direction they wish, and even implant false sensor information, fooling the animal into thinking food was nearby.

Scientists uncover virus with potential to stop pimples

September 26, 2012 6:18 am | News | Comments

Watch out, acne. Doctors soon may have a new weapon against zits: A harmless virus living on our skin that naturally seeks out and kills the bacteria that cause pimples. In the new findings, scientists looked at two little microbes that share a big name: Propionibacterium acnes , a bacterium thriving in our pores that can trigger acne, and P. acnes phages, a family of viruses that live on human skin.

Signature of long-sought particle could advance quantum computing

September 26, 2012 3:19 am | News | Comments

A Purdue University physicist, Leonid Rokhinson, has observed evidence of long-sought Majorana fermions, special particles that could unleash the potential of fault-tolerant quantum computing. Rokhinson led a team that is the first to successfully demonstrate the fractional a.c. Josephson effect, which is a signature of the particles.

Intuitive visual control provides faster remote operation of robots

September 25, 2012 12:50 pm | News | Comments

Using a novel method of integrating video technology and familiar control devices, a research team from Georgia Institute of Technology is developing a technique to simplify remote control of robotic devices. The researchers' aim is to enhance a human operator's ability to perform precise tasks using a multijointed robotic device such as an articulated mechanical arm.

University lab encodes collagen

September 25, 2012 9:53 am | News | Comments

The human body is proficient at making collagen. And human laboratories are getting better at it all the time. In a development that could lead to better drug design and new treatments for disease, Rice University researchers have made a major step toward synthesizing custom collagen. The scientists who have learned how to make collagen are now digging into its molecular structure to see how it forms and interacts with biological systems.

Novel materials become multifunctional at ultimate quantum limit

September 25, 2012 9:17 am | News | Comments

A University of Arkansas physicist and his colleagues have examined the lower limits of novel materials called complex oxides and discovered that unlike conventional semiconductors the materials not only conduct electricity, but also develop unusual magnetic properties.

Researchers develop technique for identifying proteins secreted by cells

September 25, 2012 7:32 am | News | Comments

Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a new technique to identify the proteins secreted by a cell. The new approach should help researchers collect precise data on cell biology.

Eye proteins have germ-killing power

September 25, 2012 5:03 am | News | Comments

When it comes to germ-busting power, the eyes have it, according to a discovery by University of California, Berkeley researchers that could lead to new, inexpensive antimicrobal drugs. A team of vision scientists has found that small fragments of keratin protein in the eye play a key role in warding off pathogens.

Oscillating microscopic beads could be key to biolab on a chip

September 25, 2012 4:45 am | by David L. Chandler, MIT News Office | News | Comments

If you throw a ball underwater, you'll find that the smaller it is, the faster it moves: A larger cross-section greatly increases the water's resistance. Now, a team of researchers has figured out a way to use this basic principle, on a microscopic scale, to carry out biomedical tests that could eventually lead to fast, compact, and versatile medical testing devices.

Chemist's research may hold key to cleanup of toxic substances

September 24, 2012 11:10 am | News | Comments

A Florida State University chemist's work could lead to big improvements in our ability to detect and eliminate specific toxic substances in our environment. The work involves stripping electrons from the toxic chemical known as fluoride to produce a variety of results.

Slow-moving rocks better odds that life crashed to Earth from space

September 24, 2012 9:54 am | News | Comments

Microorganisms that crashed to Earth embedded in the fragments of distant planets might have been the sprouts of life on this one, according to new research. The research team reports that under certain conditions there is a high probability that life came to Earth during the solar system's infancy when Earth and its planetary neighbors orbiting other stars would have been close enough to each other to exchange lots of solid materials.

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