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Quantum refrigerator offers extreme cooling and convenience

March 6, 2013 3:21 pm | News | Comments

Researchers at the NIST have demonstrated a solid-state refrigerator that uses quantum physics in micro- and nanostructures to cool a much larger object to extremely low temperatures. What's more, the prototype NIST refrigerator, which measures a few inches in outer dimensions, enables researchers to place any suitable object in the cooling zone and later remove and replace it, similar to an all-purpose kitchen refrigerator.

NIST captures chemical composition with nanoscale resolution

February 13, 2013 9:09 am | News | Comments

While infrared (IR) microscopy has been used since the 1950s to determine the chemical composition of materials, the spatial resolution of the technique has been limited to tens of micrometers. Researchers at NIST and the University of Maryland have overcome this limitation, demonstrating that a new spectroscopy technique can simultaneously measure a material's topography and chemical composition with nanometer-scale spatial resolution.

Calculating quantum vacuum forces

February 8, 2013 8:44 am | News | Comments

One of the surprising predictions of quantum mechanics is that uncharged conductors can attract each other over small distances, even in empty space.  While the resulting “Casimir force” has been accurately measured and calculated for simple flat conductors, researchers have solved the much more complicated problem of calculating this force between metal plates with complicated periodic nanoscale structures on their surfaces.

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New guide will allow electric utilities to develop green button Web tools

February 7, 2013 9:30 am | News | Comments

A new guide for Web developers recently released by NIST will make it easier for electric utilities and vendors to give customers convenient, electronic access to their energy usage data with tools and applications developed as part of the new "Green Button" initiative.

Essential armchair reading for nanotube researchers

February 5, 2013 12:10 pm | News | Comments

The first fruits of a cooperative venture between scientists at Rice University and NIST have appeared in a paper that brings together a wealth of information for those who wish to use the unique properties of metallic carbon nanotubes. The article gathers research about the separation and fundamental characteristics of armchair carbon nanotubes, which have been of particular interest to researchers trying to tune their electronic and optical properties.

Nanotubes-on-a-chip may simplify optical power measurements

January 25, 2013 11:37 am | News | Comments

NIST has demonstrated a novel chip-scale instrument made of carbon nanotubes that may simplify absolute measurements of laser power, especially the light signals transmitted by optical fibers in telecommunications networks. The prototype device, a miniature version of an instrument called a cryogenic radiometer, is a silicon chip topped with circular mats of carbon nanotubes standing on end.

All that glitters is not gold

January 25, 2013 8:24 am | News | Comments

A team of researchers at NIST has shown that by bringing gold nanoparticles close to the dots and using a DNA template to control the distances, the intensity of a quantum dot's fluorescence can be predictably increased or decreased. This breakthrough opens a potential path to using quantum dots as a component in better photodetectors, chemical sensors, and nanoscale lasers.

Controlling particles for directed self-assembly of colloidal crystals

January 18, 2013 8:29 am | News | Comments

Researchers from the NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology and Johns Hopkins University have developed a technique to reliably manipulate hundreds of individual micrometer-sized colloid particles to create crystals with controlled dimensions. The accomplishment is an important milestone for understanding how to direct and control the assembly of microscale and nanoscale objects for nanomanufacturing applications.

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Millimeter-level naked-eye detection of cesium location at solid surface

January 16, 2013 9:48 am | News | Comments

The NIMS International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics has developed a supermolecular material which makes it possible to visualize the distribution of cesium on the surface of solids and in living organisms by fluorescence.

NIST patent could give lab-on-a-chip technology long shelf life

January 9, 2013 11:17 am | News | Comments

Having blood drawn and analyzed to diagnose disease is a process that can take a few days, but what if your doctor could perform this analysis in moments, right before your eyes? That's the promise of "lab-on-a-chip" technology, and researchers are working on a variety of fronts to remove technical roadblocks. A new idea addresses the issue of sensor shelf life, showing how some such chips might be made to last for months or more until needed.

“Standard quantum limit” smashed

January 8, 2013 4:27 pm | News | Comments

Communicating with light may soon get a lot easier, hints recent research from NIST and the University of Maryland's Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), where scientists have potentially found a way to overcome a longstanding barrier to cleaner signals.

Photons emitted by quantum dots can be made indistinguishable

December 20, 2012 9:51 am | News | Comments

An international collaboration of researchers has demonstrated the ability to make photons emitted by quantum dots at different frequencies identical to each other by shifting their frequencies to match. This "quantum frequency conversion" is an important step for making solid-state, single photon sources, including quantum dots, more useful light sources for photonic quantum information science.

For newly discovered 'quantum spin liquid', the beauty is in its simplicity

December 19, 2012 3:49 pm | News | Comments

A research team including scientists from NIST has confirmed long-standing suspicions among physicists that electrons in a crystalline structure called a kagome lattice can form a "spin liquid," a novel quantum state of matter in which the electrons' magnetic orientation remains in a constant state of change.

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Physicists achieve elusive “evaporative cooling” of molecules

December 19, 2012 1:55 pm | News | Comments

Evaporative cooling has long been used to cool atoms, but it has never before been done by molecules—two different atoms bonded together. Achieving a goal considered nearly impossible, JILA physicists have done this, chilling a gas of molecules to very low temperatures by adapting the familiar process by which a hot cup of coffee cools.

A low-cost route to ultrathin platinum films

December 13, 2012 8:14 am | News | Comments

A research group at NIST has developed a relatively simple, fast, and effective method of depositing uniform, ultrathin layers of platinum atoms on a surface. The new process exploits an unexpected feature of electrodeposition of platinum—if you drive the reaction much more strongly than usual, a new reaction steps in to shuts down the metal deposition process, allowing an unprecedented level of control of the film thickness.

"Magic zero" technique reduces atomic clock uncertainty

December 6, 2012 9:29 am | News | Comments

Scientists at NIST have devised and demonstrated a novel method for making the most precise measurements to date of the properties of two atomic transitions in rubidium, and element whose transitions are used as frequency standards for many atomic clocks. The technique is accurate to about 0.3%, which is 10 times more accurate than the best theoretical values.

Scientists image molecular structure of polymer blends

November 29, 2012 9:31 am | News | Comments

Using an enhanced form of "chemical microscopy" developed at NIST, researchers there have shown that they can peer into the structure of blended polymers, resolving details of the molecular arrangement at sub-micrometer levels. The capability has important implications for the design of industrially important polymers like the polyethylene blends used to repair aging waterlines.

NIST releases annual report on federal technology transfer

November 28, 2012 4:31 pm | News | Comments

Each year NIST releases a report on technology transfer from federal laboratories, detailing efforts to transfer the results of public investment in research to meet marketplace and other needs. The newest technology transfer report tallies the thousands of patents, cooperative agreements, licenses, and other pathways by which these transfers happened in 2010.

Scientists image the molecular structure of polymer blends

November 28, 2012 11:34 am | News | Comments

Using an enhanced form of "chemical microscopy" developed at NIST, researchers there have shown that they can peer into the structure of blended polymers, resolving details of the molecular arrangement at sub-micrometer levels. The capability has important implications for the design of industrially important polymers like the polyethylene blends used to repair aging waterlines.

Key property of graphene sustained over wide ranges of density, energy

November 15, 2012 7:33 am | News | Comments

A collaboration led by researchers from the NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology has shown, for the first time, that charge carriers in graphene continue to behave as massless particles, like photons, over wider ranges of both density and energy than previously measured or modeled.

Carbon nanotubes may protect DNA from oxidation

November 14, 2012 4:07 pm | News | Comments

Researchers at NIST have provided evidence in the laboratory that single-wall carbon nanotubes may help protect DNA molecules from damage by oxidation. In nature, oxidation is a common chemical process in which a reactive chemical removes electrons from DNA and may increase the chance for mutations in cells. More studies are needed to see if the in vitro protective effect of nanotubes reported in the laboratory also occurs in vivo, that is, within a living organism.

Coming soon: Tabletop molecular movies

November 7, 2012 2:07 pm | News | Comments

One of the most urgently sought-after goals in modern science is the ability to observe the detailed dynamics of chemical reactions as they happen—that is, on the spatial scale of molecules, atoms, and electrons, and on the time scale of picoseconds or even shorter. A team of scientists at NIST has devised and demonstrated a highly unusual, compact, and relatively inexpensive x-ray source for an imaging system that may soon be employed to produce the kind of “molecular movies” that scientists and engineers need.

The first controllable atom SQUID

November 7, 2012 9:43 am | News | Comments

Scientists at NIST have created the first controllable atomic circuit that functions analogously to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and allows operators to select a particular quantum state of the system at will. By manipulating atoms in a superfluid ring thinner than a human hair the investigators were able for the first time to measure rotation-induced discrete quantized changes in the atoms’ state, thereby providing a proof-of-principle design for an “atomtronic” inertial sensor.

Versatile optomechanical sensors aid atomic force microscopy

October 25, 2012 2:25 pm | News | Comments

Researchers from NIST have developed on-chip optomechanical sensors for atomic force microscopy (AFM) that extend the range of mechanical properties found in commercial AFM cantilevers, potentially enabling the use of this technology to study a wide variety of physical systems.

NRI to lead five-year effort to develop post-CMOS electronics

October 19, 2012 8:17 am | News | Comments

NIST announced the selection of the Nanoelectronics Research Initiative (NRI), a collaboration of several key firms in the semiconductor industry, to support university-centered research for the development of after-the-next-generation "nanoelectronics" technology. NRI consists of participants from the semiconductor industry, including GLOBALFOUNDRIES, IBM, Intel, Micron Technology, and Texas Instruments.

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