After nearly a decade of development and testing, an advanced instrument for directly imaging and analyzing planets orbiting around other stars is pointing skyward and collecting light from distant worlds. For the past decade, a multi-institutional team has designed, engineered, built and optimized the instrument, called the Gemini Planet Imager, which will be used for high-contrast imaging to study faint planets next to bright stars.
A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory team has recently produced some of the highest energy betatron x-rays ever demonstrated, with the added benefit of being produced on a system the size of a large tabletop. Betatron x-ray radiation, produced when relativistic electrons are accelerated and oscillate in a laser-driven plasma channel, is an x-ray source holding great promise for future high-energy-density science experiments.
Using a new isotope technique and deep sea corals gathered near the Hawaiian Islands, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientist, in collaboration with Univ. of California Santa Cruz colleagues, has determined that a long-term shift in nitrogen content in the Pacific Ocean has occurred as a result of climate change. This shift is similar to major paleoceanographic transitions in the sedimentary record.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have combined ultra-fast time-resolved experimental measurements with theory to reveal how an explosive responds to a high-impact shock. The work involved advances in both ultra-fast experimental shock wave methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation techniques, and the combination of experiment and simulation is a milestone in understanding chemical initiation and detonation.
The rain in Spain may lie mainly on the plain, but the location and intensity of that rain is changing not only in Spain but around the globe. A new study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists shows that observed changes in global (ocean and land) precipitation are directly affected by human activities and cannot be explained by natural variability alone.
The first solids to form in the solar system contain unusual isotopic signatures that show a nearby supernova injected material within ~100,000 years of their formation. That supernova, caused from the cataclysmic death of a star, could have even triggered the birth of the sun.
Researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich have developed a new method of using nanotubes to detect molecules at extremely low concentrations enabling trace detection of biological threats, explosives and drugs.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in partnership with Intel and Cray, announced a unique high-performance computing (HPC) cluster that will serve research scientists at all three institutions and provide a proving ground for new HPC and big data technologies and architectures.
Scientists have used the powerful x-ray laser at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to create movies detailing trillionths-of-a-second changes in the arrangement of copper atoms after an extreme shock. The study pinpointed the precise breaking point when the extreme pressures began to permanently deform the copper structure, or lattice, so it could no longer bounce back to its original shape.
A research team, led by the Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, developed a solar-microbial device that combines a microbial fuel cell (MFC) and a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC). In the MFC component, bacteria degrade organic matter in the wastewater, generating electricity. The biologically generated electricity is delivered to the PEC component to assist the solar-powered splitting of water that generates hydrogen and oxygen.
A team of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers has pioneered the use of a long-standing technology for a new application—analyzing the chemical composition of uranium samples. In a paper published in Applied Spectroscopy, LLNL scientists describe the first reported use of near-infrared spectrometry to study the chemical properties of uranium ore concentrates, also called yellowcake.
Human influences have directly impacted the latitude/altitude pattern of atmospheric temperature. That is the conclusion of a new report by scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and six other scientific institutions. The research compares multiple satellite records of atmospheric temperature change with results from a large, multimodel archive of simulations.
The science and engineering capabilities that underpin the nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship and nonproliferation missions at the nation’s three national security laboratories are “healthy and vibrant,” says a new report from the National Research Council. The committee that wrote the report found no problems with the quality of science and engineering that would prevent certification of the stockpile.
Researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Florida-based Chemergy Inc. plan to demonstrate an innovative bioenergy technology that converts wastewater treatment plant byproducts into hydrogen gas to produce electricity. The $1.75 million project will demonstrate an integrated system on a limited industrial scale at the Delta Diablo Sanitation District facility in Antioch, Calif.
A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-developed biological detection technology has been employed as part of an international collaboration that has detected a virus in bladder cancers. The research is believed to be the first study to demonstrate an association between Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8, and bladder cancers.
Computers process information quickly, but they perform sequentially. Because clock speeds have stalled, future performance gains come almost solely from running sets of instructions concurrently. This will force fundamental changes for all computer components, making co-design (collaborative, simultaneous development of all system components) essential. Developed by a team led by Sandia National Laboratories, Mantevo Suite 1.0 is a promising approach to co-design.
Using carbon nanotubes, a research team in Switzerland and California has developed a sensor that greatly amplifies the sensitivity of commonly used but typically weak vibrational spectroscopic methods, such as Raman spectroscopy. This type of sensor makes it possible to detect molecules present in the tiniest of concentrations.
Fiber lasers and amplifiers are common in a number of national defense applications. Increasing the average power of these lasers is straightforward: Use multiple lasers in multi-mode operation. However, to maintain the ability to focus, single-mode operation is often necessary. Scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have developed Efficient Mode-Converters for High-Power Fiber Amplifiers as a way to help developers scale fiber-based laser installations to higher power levels while still retaining effective focus.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed an accelerated high-throughput pulse screener, Laser SHIELD (Screening at High-throughput to Identify Energetic Laser Distortion), that can identify harmful pulses across 48 locations using a single, real-time 34-GHz oscilloscope.
One of the most overlooked threats to human health is poor indoor air quality. Various air pollutants exist indoors, including biological pollutants, secondhand smoke, combustion pollutants and other chemicals, and can pool in spaces with inadequate ventilation. Determining the source of pollution is often the first step in improving air quality. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s DNA TRAX, a safe simulant material made with non-biological DNA, can track and quantify indoor airflow.
On Aug.13, 2013, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF) focused all 192 of its ultrapowerful laser beams on a tiny deuterium-tritium filled capsule. In the nanoseconds that followed, the capsule imploded and released a neutron yield of nearly 3x1015, or approximately 8,000 joules of neutron energy, approximately three times NIF's previous neutron yield record for cryogenic implosions.
Outbreaks such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS) have afflicted people around the world, yet many people think these trends are on the decline. Quite the opposite is true. The efforts to combat this epidemic are being spearheaded by a team of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists.
Iron is the most abundant element in Earth's core and the sixth most abundant element in the universe. As a key component of terrestrial planets and exoplanets, iron has been one of the most studied materials under extreme conditions. In a series of campaigns using the OMEGA laser at the Univ. of Rochester, researchers compressed iron up to 5.6 million atmospheres, a record pressure for solid iron.
Andrea Schmidt and her plasma research team received a big boost recently by procuring a $1-million award from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), a U.S. Dept. of Defense agency. The award will be used to fund their groundbreaking work in both modeling and experiments of a classic plasma configuration, the Z-pinch.
The use of plasmonic black metals could someday provide a pathway to more efficient photovoltaics to improve solar energy harvesting, according to researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The LLNL Materials Engineering Div. research team has made breakthroughs experimenting with black metals. These nanostructured metals are designed to have low reflectivity and high absorption of visible and infrared light.