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Long shots: Galaxies from 13.2 billion years ago

January 8, 2014 9:39 am | by Seth Borenstein, AP Science Writer | News | Comments

Images released by NASA on Tuesday show galaxies that are 20 times fainter than those pictured before. They are from a new campaign to have the 23-year-old Hubble Space Telescope gaze much earlier and farther away than it was designed to see. The spacecraft is now looking within 500 million years after the Big Bang.

Out of this world first light images emerge from Gemini Planet Imager

January 7, 2014 12:43 pm | News | Comments

After nearly a decade of development and testing, an advanced instrument for directly imaging and analyzing planets orbiting around other stars is pointing skyward and collecting light from distant worlds. For the past decade, a multi-institutional team has designed, engineered, built and optimized the instrument, called the Gemini Planet Imager, which will be used for high-contrast imaging to study faint planets next to bright stars.

NASA’s Fermi makes first gamma ray study of a gravitational lens

January 7, 2014 8:54 am | Videos | Comments

An international team of astronomers, using NASA's Fermi observatory, has made the first-ever gamma ray measurements of a gravitational lens, a kind of natural telescope formed when a rare cosmic alignment allows the gravity of a massive object to bend and amplify light from a more distant source. This accomplishment opens new avenues for research, including a novel way to probe emission regions near supermassive black holes.

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Supernova’s super dust factory imaged with ALMA

January 6, 2014 11:10 am | News | Comments

Supernovas are thought to be a primary source of a galaxy’s dust. Direct evidence of a supernova’s dust-making capabilities, however, has been slim and cannot account for the volume of dust detected in young, distant galaxies. Striking new observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) telescope capture, for the first time, the remains of a recent supernova brimming with freshly formed dust.

Researchers use Hubble Telescope to reveal cloudy weather on alien world

January 2, 2014 1:29 pm | News | Comments

Weather forecasters on exoplanet GJ 1214b would have an easy job. Today’s forecast: cloudy. Tomorrow: overcast. Extended outlook: more clouds.The scrutinized planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, is classified as a super-Earth type planet because its mass is intermediate between those of Earth and Neptune.

Europe launches satellite to map 1 billion stars

December 19, 2013 7:16 pm | by Danica Coto and Frank Jordans, Associated Press | News | Comments

Astronomers are still largely working with a “flat” map of the galaxy, and the European Space Agency hopes to change that with Gaia, its star-surveying satellite which launched into space Thursday. The spacecraft will produce the most accurate 3-D map of the Milky Way yet. Gaia is now heading for a stable orbit on the opposite side of the Earth from the sun, and will always keep its back to the sun.

Powerful ancient explosions explain new class of supernovae

December 19, 2013 8:00 am | News | Comments

Astronomers affiliated with the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) have discovered two of the brightest and most distant supernovae ever recorded, 10 billion light-years away and a hundred times more luminous than a normal supernova. These newly discovered supernovae are especially puzzling because the mechanism that powers most of them cannot explain their extreme luminosity.

NASA orders urgent spacewalk repairs at station

December 17, 2013 6:30 pm | by MARCIA DUNN - AP Aerospace Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

NASA has ordered up a series of urgent spacewalks to fix a broken cooling line at the International Space Station, a massive repair job that could stretch to Christmas Day. Station managers decided Tuesday to send two American astronauts out as soon as possible to replace a pump with a bad valve. The task will require two and possibly three spacewalks on Saturday, Monday and next Wednesday.

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First noble gas molecules discovered in space

December 12, 2013 2:34 pm | News | Comments

Noble gas molecules have been detected in space for the first time in the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant, by astronomers at Univ. College London. Led by Prof. Mike Barlow, the team used ESA's Herschel Space Observatory to observe the Crab Nebula in far infrared light. Their measurements of regions of cold gas and dust led them to the serendipitous discovery of the chemical fingerprint of argon hydride ions.

NASA suspects bad valve for space station trouble

December 12, 2013 12:52 pm | by MARCIA DUNN - AP Aerospace Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

The astronauts aboard the International Space Station dimmed the lights, turned off unnecessary equipment and put off science work Thursday as NASA scrambled to figure out what's wrong with a key cooling unit. One of two identical cooling loops shut down Wednesday when the line got too cold because of a faulty valve. The system uses ammonia to dissipate heat from onboard equipment.

Astronomers solve temperature mystery of planetary atmospheres

December 11, 2013 4:07 pm | News | Comments

An atmospheric peculiarity the Earth shares with Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune is likely common to billions of planets, Univ. of Washington astronomers have found, and knowing that may help in the search for potentially habitable worlds. The paper uses basic physics to show why this happens, and suggests that tropopauses are probably common to billions of thick-atmosphere planets and moons throughout the galaxy.

First rock dating experiment performed on Mars

December 11, 2013 8:23 am | News | Comments

Although researchers have determined the ages of rocks from other planetary bodies, the actual experiments have been done on Earth. Now, for the first time, researchers have successfully determined the age of a Martian rock with experiments performed on Mars. The work could not only help in understanding the geologic history of Mars but also aid in the search for evidence of ancient life on the planet.

Scientists publish first radiation measurements from the surface of Mars

December 10, 2013 1:55 pm | News | Comments

In the first 300 days of the Mars Science Laboratory surface mission, the Curiosity rover collected soil samples in Gale Crater while the onboard Radiation Assessment Detector made detailed measurements of the radiation environment on the surface of Mars. Southwest Research Institute scientists have published the results of these studies, comparing them to typically doses received on Earth.

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Ancient crater may be clue to moon’s mantle

December 9, 2013 1:43 pm | News | Comments

A massive impact on the moon about 4 billion years ago left a 2,500-mile crater, among the largest known craters in the solar system. Smaller subsequent impacts left craters within that crater. Comparing the spectra of light reflected from the peaks of those craters may yield clues to the composition of the moon’s lower crust and mantle—and would have implications for models of how the moon formed.

NASA: Ancient Martian lake may have supported life

December 9, 2013 12:28 pm | by ALICIA CHANG - AP Science Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

NASA's Curiosity rover has uncovered signs of an ancient freshwater lake on Mars that may have teemed with tiny organisms for tens of millions of years, far longer than scientists had imagined, new research suggests. The watering hole near the Martian equator existed about 3.5 billion years ago. Scientists say it was neither salty nor acidic, and contained nutrients—a perfect spot to support microbes.

Industry Breakout - Aerospace, Defense & Security

December 9, 2013 6:06 am | by R&D Magazine/Battelle | Articles | Comments

R&D among aerospace, defense and security firms is primarily driven by two sectors: the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the global airline industry. The major aerospace and defense contractors plan R&D in close coordination with DOD to meet the needs of national defense and global security, while capacity, economics and efficiency are drivers for civil aviation requirements.

Martian laser surpasses 100,000 zaps

December 5, 2013 3:26 pm | News | Comments

The ChemCam laser instrument aboard NASA’s Curiosity rover fired its 100,000th shot recently, chronicling its adventures on Mars with a coffee-table-book’s worth of spectral data that might rival snapshots gathered during a long and satisfying family vacation here on Earth. ChemCam zaps rocks with a high-powered laser to determine their composition and carries a camera that can survey the Martian landscape.

CERN, eat your heart out?

December 5, 2013 9:46 am | by Jamie Hanlon, Univ. of Alberta | News | Comments

A research team has discovered a natural particle accelerator of interstellar scale. By analyzing data from NASA’s Van Allen probes, physicists have been able to measure and identify the “smoking gun” of a planetary scale process that accelerates particles to speeds close to the speed of light within the Van Allen radiation belt.

The search for more life in the solar system

December 5, 2013 8:51 am | News | Comments

In a finding of relevance to the search for life in our solar system, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Univ. of Texas at Austin’s Institute for Geophysics and the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research have shown that the subsurface ocean on Jupiter’s moon Europa may have deep currents and circulation patterns with heat and energy transfers capable of sustaining biological life.

Hubble traces subtle signals of water on hazy worlds

December 4, 2013 8:07 am | News | Comments

Using the powerful­ eye of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, two teams of scientists have found faint signatures of water in the atmospheres of five distant planets. The presence of atmospheric water was reported previously on a few exoplanets orbiting stars beyond our solar system, but this is the first study to conclusively measure and compare the profiles and intensities of these signatures on multiple worlds.

Hubble Telescope best shot at learning comet fate

December 3, 2013 2:10 pm | by Marcia Dunn, AP Aerospace Writer | News | Comments

NASA said Monday that the Hubble Space Telescope is the best bet for figuring out whether Comet ISON disintegrated during its brush with the sun last week. A pair of solar observatories saw something emerge from around the sun following ISON's close approach on Thanksgiving Day. But scientists don't yet know whether the spot of light was merely the comet's shattered remains or what's left of its icy nucleus.

China launches first moon rover, the “Jade Rabbit”

December 2, 2013 9:19 am | News | Comments

On Monday, China launched its first rover mission to the moon, sending a robotic craft named Jade Rabbit to trundle across the lunar landscape, examine its geology and beam images back to Earth. If the Chang'e 3 successfully soft-lands on the moon, China will become the third country to do so, after the United States and the former Soviet Union.

Nuclear cooling in neutron stars deepens mystery of hot surface

December 2, 2013 8:45 am | News | Comments

Research has shed new light on the properties of neutron stars, super dense stars that form when a large star explodes and collapses into itself. Writing in Nature, the team describes a newly discovered process that happens within the star's crust, located just below the surface. Until now, scientists thought that nuclear reactions within the crust contributed to the heating of the star's surface.

Unusual greenhouse gases may have raised ancient Martian temperature

November 27, 2013 11:36 am | by Anne Danahy, Penn State Univ. | News | Comments

The presence of molecular hydrogen, in addition to carbon dioxide and water, could have created a greenhouse effect on Mars 3.8 billion years ago that pushed temperatures high enough to allow for liquid water. This is according to a team of researchers who believe this is the only way for giant canyons like Nanedi Valles could have formed.

Citizen scientists, PCs help discover gamma-ray pulsars

November 27, 2013 9:49 am | News | Comments

Einstein@Home creates a global supercomputer by connecting more than 350,000 participants that contribute to a variety of scientific projects, particularly astronomy, by conducting distributed analysis routines with their home computers. This resource has already found several pulsars hidden in radio telescope data. Now, “citizen scientists” have helped researchers discover four new gamma-ray pulsars.

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