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Multi-scale Fractal-based Methods for Useful Characterizations of Surface Topographies

March 30, 2015 12:05 pm | by Christopher Brown, Surface Metrology Lab, Worcester Polytechnic Institute | Articles | Comments

Geometrically, fractals have forms, or features, that repeat at different sizes over ranges of scales. These features can repeat exactly, such as the triangles that repeat with scale on a Koch snowflake or Minkowski sausage. Or, these features might repeat statistically, as on ground or abraded surfaces, where these repeating features create self-similar patterns of scratches or over a range of scales.

Precocious GEM

March 30, 2015 7:46 am | by Michael Baum, NIST | News | Comments

Scientists working at NIST and the NIH have devised and demonstrated a new, shape-shifting probe...

First glimpse inside a macroscopic quantum state

March 27, 2015 9:49 am | by Alina Hirschmann, The Institute of Photonic Sciences | News | Comments

In a recent study published in Physical Review Letters, the research group led by ICREA...

Physicists solve low-temperature magnetic mystery

March 27, 2015 8:19 am | by Chelsea Whyte, Brookhaven National Laboratory | News | Comments

Researchers have made an experimental breakthrough in explaining a rare property of an exotic...

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Dark matter even darker than once thought

March 27, 2015 7:54 am | by Hubble Information Centre | News | Comments

Astronomers using observations from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have studied how dark matter in clusters of galaxies behaves when the clusters collide. The results, published in Science, show that dark matter interacts with itself even less than previously thought, and narrows down the options for what this mysterious substance might be.

Using magnetic fields to understand high-temperature superconductivity

March 27, 2015 7:44 am | by Nancy Ambrosiano, Los Alamos National Laboratory | News | Comments

Taking our understanding of quantum matter to new levels, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are exposing high-temperature superconductors to very high magnetic fields, changing the temperature at which the materials become perfectly conducting and revealing unique properties of these substances.

Quantum compute this

March 26, 2015 11:05 am | by Washington State Univ. | News | Comments

Washington State Univ. mathematicians have designed an encryption code capable of fending off the phenomenal hacking power of a quantum computer. Using high-level number theory and cryptography, the researchers reworked an infamous old cipher called the knapsack code to create an online security system better prepared for future demands.

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Thousands of atoms entangled with a single photon

March 26, 2015 7:40 am | by Jennifer Chu, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Physicists from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Univ. of Belgrade have developed a new technique that can successfully entangle 3,000 atoms using only a single photon. The results represent the largest number of particles that have ever been mutually entangled experimentally.

Researchers identify 'tipping point' between quantum and classical worlds

March 24, 2015 3:50 pm | by Bar-Ilan University | News | Comments

Scientists have observed the point at which classical and quantum behavior converge. Using a fiber-based nonlinear process, the researchers were able to observe how, and under what conditions, "classical" physical behavior emerges from the quantum world.

New technique paints tissue samples with light

March 24, 2015 3:48 pm | by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign | News | Comments

One infrared scan can give pathologists a window into the structures and molecules inside tissues and cells, enabling fast and broad diagnostic assessments, thanks to an imaging technique developed by University of Illinois researchers and clinical partners.

Physicists solve low-temperature magnetic mystery

March 24, 2015 3:44 pm | by University of Connecticut | News | Comments

Researchers have made an experimental breakthrough in explaining a rare property of an exotic magnetic material, potentially opening a path to a host of new technologies.

Tiny bio-robot is a germ suited-up with graphene quantum dots

March 24, 2015 3:42 pm | by University of Illinois at Chicago | News | Comments

As nanotechnology makes possible a world of machines too tiny to see, researchers are finding ways to combine living organisms with nonliving machinery to solve a variety of problems. Like other first-generation bio-robots, the new nanobot engineered at the University of Illinois at Chicago is a far cry from Robocop. It's a robotic germ.

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Building shape inspires new material discovery

March 24, 2015 10:20 am | by Australian National University | News | Comments

Physicists inspired by the radical shape of a Canberra building have created a new type of material which enables scientists to put a perfect bend in light. The creation of a so-called topological insulator could transform the telecommunications industry's drive to build an improved computer chip using light.

Quantum experiment verifies Einstein's 'spooky action at a distance'

March 24, 2015 10:14 am | by Griffith University | News | Comments

An experiment devised in Griffith University's Centre for Quantum Dynamics has for the first time demonstrated Albert Einstein's original conception of "spooky action at a distance" using a single particle.

Have researchers discovered the sound of stars?

March 23, 2015 10:32 am | by David Garner, Senior Press Officer, Univ. of York | News | Comments

A chance discovery by a team of researchers, including a Univ. of York scientist, has provided experimental evidence that stars may generate sound. The study of fluids in motion goes back to the Egyptians, so it isn’t often that new discoveries are made. However when examining the interaction of an ultra-intense laser with a plasma target, the team observed something unexpected.

Superfast computers a step closer to reality

March 23, 2015 9:03 am | by Univ. of Surrey | News | Comments

The team demonstrated a quantum on/off switching time of about a millionth of a millionth of a second—the fastest-ever quantum switch to be achieved with silicon and over a thousand times faster than previous attempts. The team will  investigate how to connect quantum objects to each other, creating the bigger building blocks needed for quantum computers.

Twisted light increases efficiency of quantum cryptography systems

March 23, 2015 8:03 am | by Leonor Sierra, Univ. of Rochester | News | Comments

Researchers at the Univ. of Rochester and their collaborators have developed a way to transfer 2.05 bits per photon by using “twisted light.” This remarkable achievement is possible because the researchers used the orbital angular momentum of the photons to encode information, rather than the more commonly used polarization of light.

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Lack of effective timing signals could hamper IoT development

March 20, 2015 8:30 am | by Chad Boutin, NIST | News | Comments

Our fast-approaching future of driverless cars and “smart” electrical grids will depend on billions of linked devices making decisions and communicating with split-second precision to prevent highway collisions and power outages. But a new report released by NIST warns that this future could be stalled by our lack of effective methods to marry computers and networks with timing systems.

Watching quantum dots “breathe” in response to stress

March 19, 2015 8:44 am | by SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory | News | Comments

Researchers at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory watched nanoscale semiconductor crystals expand and shrink in response to powerful pulses of laser light. This ultrafast “breathing” provides new insight about how such tiny structures change shape as they start to melt: information that can help guide researchers in tailoring their use for a range of applications.

Superradiant matter: A new paradigm to explore dynamic phase transitions

March 18, 2015 10:32 am | by Univ. of Hamburg | News | Comments

If you put water in the freezer to make ice, you trigger a dynamic phase transition. Physicists gave that fancy name to a process which takes a system across a phase transition in a realistic time, to distinguish it from the hypothetical process which goes across the transition infinitely slow. This latter, hypothetical case is discussed in any college textbook.

Light as a puppeteer

March 18, 2015 9:24 am | by Laura Petersen, OIST | Videos | Comments

Researchers at the OIST have demonstrated a more robust method for controlling single, micron-sized particles with light. Passing light along optical microfibers or nanofibers to manipulate particles has gained popularity in the past decade and has an array of promising applications in physics and biology. Most research has focused on using this technique with the basic profile of light.

Textured rubber that grips slick, icy surfaces

March 17, 2015 4:08 pm | by Jason Socrates Bardi, American Institute of Physics | News | Comments

Winter storms dumped records amounts of snow on the East Coast this February, leaving treacherous, icy sidewalks and roads in their wake. Now researchers from Canada are developing new methods to mass-produce a material that may help pedestrians get a better grip on slippery surfaces. The material, which is made up of glass fibers embedded in a compliant rubber, could one day be used in the soles of slip-resistant winter boots.

Data structures influence speed of quantum search in unexpected ways

March 17, 2015 3:25 pm | by Susan Brown, Univ. of California, San Diego | News | Comments

Using the quantum property of superposition, quantum computers will be able to find target items within large piles of data far faster than conventional computers ever could. But the speed of the search will likely depend on the structure of the data. Such a search would proceed as a quantum particle jumps from one node of a connected set of data to another. Intuition says that the search would be fastest in a highly connected database.

How rocket science may improve kidney dialysis

March 17, 2015 2:03 pm | by Jason Socrates Bardi, American Institute of Physics | News | Comments

A team of researchers in the U.K. has found a way to redesign an artificial connection between an artery and vein, known as an Arterio-Venous Fistulae, which surgeons form in the arms of people with end-stage renal disease so that those patients can receive routine dialysis, filtering their blood and keeping them alive after their kidneys fail.

The secret to an effortless, split-second slime attack

March 17, 2015 1:47 pm | by Caroline Perry, Harvard Univ. | News | Comments

The velvet worm is a slow-moving, unassuming creature. With its soft body, probing antennae and stubby legs, it looks like a slug on stilts as it creeps along damp logs in tropical climates. But it has a secret weapon. In the dark of night, when an unsuspecting cricket or termite crosses its path, the worm unleashes an instantaneous torrent of slime.

Nanospheres cooled with light to explore the limits of quantum physics

March 17, 2015 10:19 am | by Univ. College London | News | Comments

A team of scientists at Univ. College London has developed a new technology which could one day create quantum phenomena in objects far larger than any achieved so far. The team successfully suspended glass particles 400 nm across in a vacuum using an electric field, then used lasers to cool them to within a few degrees of absolute zero. These are the key prerequisites for making an object behave according to quantum principles.

Opening a window on quantum gravity

March 17, 2015 9:11 am | by Yale Univ. | News | Comments

Yale Univ. has received a grant from the W. M. Keck Foundation to fund experiments that researchers hope will provide new insights into quantum gravity. Jack Harris, associate professor of physics, will lead a Yale team that aims to address a long-standing question in physics: how the classical behavior of macroscopic objects emerges from microscopic constituents that obey the laws of quantum mechanics.

Second natural quasicrystal found in ancient meteorite

March 16, 2015 3:17 pm | by Catherine Zandonella, Princeton Univ. | News | Comments

A team from Princeton Univ. and the Univ. of Florence in Italy has discovered a quasicrystal in a 4.5-billion-year-old meteorite from a remote region of northeastern Russia, bringing to two the number of natural quasicrystals ever discovered. Prior to the team finding the first natural quasicrystal in 2009, researchers thought that the structures were too fragile and energetically unstable to be formed by natural processes.

Fusion researchers make breakthrough on ELMs mitigation

March 13, 2015 2:36 pm | by John Greenwald, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory | News | Comments

Researchers from General Atomics and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory have made a major breakthrough in understanding how potentially damaging heat bursts inside a fusion reactor can be controlled. Scientists performed the experiments on the DIII-D National Fusion Facility, a tokamak operated by General Atomics in San Diego.

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