Scientists’ underwater cameras got a boost this summer from the Electron Microscopy Center at Argonne National Laboratory. Along with colleagues at the Univ. of Manchester, researchers captured the world’s first real-time images and simultaneous chemical analysis of nanostructures while “underwater,” or in solution.
Cancerous brain tumors are notorious for growing back despite surgical attempts to remove them, and for leading to a dire prognosis for patients. But scientists are developing a new way to try to root out malignant cells during surgery so fewer or none get left behind to form new tumors. The technology relies on a Raman scanner that can read injected nanoprobes.
Recent experiments have confirmed that a technique developed several years ago at NIST can enable optical microscopes to measure the 3-D shape of objects at nanometer-scale resolution—far below the normal resolution limit for optical microscopy (about 250 nm for green light). The results could make the technique a useful quality control tool in the manufacture of nanoscale devices such as next-generation microchips.
Scientists in Germany have managed to take a unique look at the membranes of human cells using a new technique called dSTORM: direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. This is a specific form of high-resolution fluorescence microscopy, and it makes individual saccharified proteins and lipids visible at the molecular level.
Specialized cells can break through normal tissue boundaries and burrow into other tissues and organs. This crucial step in many normal developmental processes is guided by an extracellular cue called netrin, which orients the anchor cell so that it invades in the right direction. In a new study, researchers have shown how receptors on the invasive cells rove around the cell membrane ”hunting” for a missing netrin signal.
The first direct observations of how facets form and develop on platinum nanocubes point the way towards more sophisticated and effective nanocrystal design and reveal that a nearly 150 year-old scientific law describing crystal growth breaks down at the nanoscale.
New measurements of atomic-scale magnetic behavior in iron-based superconductors by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Vanderbilt Univ. are challenging conventional wisdom about superconductivity and magnetism. The study provides experimental evidence that local magnetic fluctuations can influence the performance of iron-based superconductors, which transmit electric current without resistance at relatively high temperatures.
Prior to the introduction of the ELYRA P.1 with 3D PALM by Carl Zeiss Microscopy LLC, commercially available 3-D localization techniques resulted in images where the resolution was not uniform throughout a small capture volume due to location dependent localization precision. The utilization of these techniques would not allow researchers to model biological structures in a fast and reliable manner over large capture volumes.
Most microscopes are expensive, built with high-quality metals, optics and electronics to perform with high accuracy. However, not all useful microscopes need to be built this way, and Stanford Univ. has taken this premise to the extreme with a microscope that is made with parts that cost less than $1. A frugal, origami-based solution, the Foldscope can be assembled from 2-D media in less than 10 min, yet can provide more than 2,000X magnification, which is submicrometer resolution.
With the introduction of the VertiSense Scanning Thermal Microscopy Module, Applied NanoStructures Inc. has brought a new level of flexibility to thermal imaging using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The probe module’s sensor design provides, for the first time, absolute and nanoscale temperature measurement during the application of scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), which captures both topographical and thermal images.
Super-resolution microscopy has emerged as a leading subcellular imaging technique over the past decade, bringing tagged nanoscopic biological elements into full view for researchers. Leica Microsystems has been a development leader in this segment of microscopy, and one of its newest products, the TCS SP8 STED 3X, brings a new element to imaging capabilities.
Engineers at Hitachi Ltd.’s Yokohama Research Laboratory have achieved a spatial resolution of 3 nm and imaging repeatability of 0.5 nm in the new Plasmon‐Excitation Optical Scanning Probe Microscope (Optical SPM), which allows users to obtain difficult nondestructive measurements of nanoscale devices.
Rice Univ. scientists have won a race to find the crystal structure of the first virus known to infect the most abundant animal on Earth. The Rice laboratories of structural biologist Yizhi Jane Tao and geneticist Weiwei Zhong, with help from researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and Washington Univ., analyzed the Orsay virus that naturally infects a certain type of nematode, the worms that make up 80% of the living animal population.
The Univ. of California, San Diego’s Nanofabrication Cleanroom Facility (Nano3) is the first institution to obtain a new FEI Scios dual-beam microscope, with an adaptation for use at cryogenic temperatures. The new microscope allows biologists to nanomachine cells to reduce them to the thickness required for electron microscopy without creating any sample distortions and while maintaining cryogenic temperatures.
Researchers at the National Physical Laboratory in the U.K. have discovered that the conductivity at the edges of graphene devices is different to the central material. The group used local scanning electrical techniques to examine the local nanoscale electronic properties of epitaxial graphene, in particular the differences between the edges and central parts of graphene Hall bar devices.
Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer type in the United States. A new handheld device may help diagnosis and treatment efforts for the disease. It uses lasers and sound waves and is the first that can be used directly on a patient to accurately measure how deep a melanoma tumor extends into the skin.
For the first time, researchers have succeeded in "growing" single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) with a single predefined structure, and hence with identical electronic properties. The method involved self-assembly of tailor-made organic precursor molecules on a platinum surface. In the future, carbon nanotubes of this kind may be used in ultra-sensitive light detectors and ultra-small transistors.
Brain tumors fly under the radar of the body’s defense forces by coating their cells with extra amounts of a specific protein, new research at the Univ. of Michigan shows. The findings, made in mice and rats, show the key role of a protein called galectin-1 in some of the most dangerous brain tumors, called high grade malignant gliomas. The stealth approach lets the tumors hide until it’s too late for the body to defeat them.
In 2012, a team of researchers in London imaged, for the first time, the structure of the DNA double helix. James Watson and Francis Crick discovered DNA 60 years ago by laboriously studying x-ray diffraction images of millions of DNA molecules. However, Dr. Bart Hoogenboom and Dr. Carl Leung used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to directly “feel” the molecule’s structure in a fraction of the time.
The search for zero-resistance conductors that can operate at realistic temperatures has been frustrated by the inability to understand high-temperature superconductors, particularly their magnetic structure. Researchers have done this at the atomic scale for the first time with a so-called strongly correlated electron system of iron telluride. Previously, magnetic information was provided by neutron diffraction, which is imprecise.
Using cryo-electron microscopy technology from FEI Corp., researchers at the NIH-FEI Living Lab for Structural Biology have determined the structural mechanism by which glutamate receptors participate in the transmission of signals between neurons in the brain. The findings suggest a major breakthrough: that the determination of membrane proteins may no longer be limited by size or the need for crystallization.
Scientists in Indiana have recently described the self-assembly of large, symmetrical molecules in “bricks-and-mortar” fashion. While researchers have created many such large, cyclic molecules, or macrocycles, what these chemists have built is a cyanostar, a five-sided molecule that is unusual in that it can be readily synthesized in a "one pot" process. It also has an unprecedented ability to bind with large, negatively charged anions.
Bruker has announced that it has acquired Vutara Inc., a technology leader in high-speed, 3-D, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy for life science applications. Transaction details were not disclosed. Vutara’s estimated revenue for the full year 2014 is expected to be approximately $2 million.
Big data can mean big headaches for scientists. A new library of software tools from Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Janelia Research Campus speeds analysis of data sets so large and complex they would take days or weeks to analyze on a single workstation, even if a single workstation could do it at all. The new tool, Thunder, should help interpret data that holds new insights into how the brain works.
A novel combination of microscopy and data processing has given researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) an unprecedented look at the surface of a material known for its unusual physical and electrochemical properties. The research team led by ORNL’s Zheng Gai examined how oxygen affects the surface of a perovskite manganite, a complex material that exhibits dramatic magnetic and electronic behavior.