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Recent advances mean wider use of flexible metallic glass is coming

March 4, 2014 10:35 am | News | Comments

Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are working toward even stronger and more elastic glass types which would fail in a ductile fashion instead of shattering. Researchers there are looking at the initiation of shear-banding events in order to better understand how to control the mechanical properties of these materials.

Researchers identify key intermediate steps in artificial photosynthesis reaction

March 3, 2014 2:42 pm | by Lyn Yarris, Berkeley Lab | News | Comments

A key to realizing commercial-scale artificial photosynthesis technology is the development of electrocatalysts that can efficiently and economically carry out water oxidation reaction that is critical to the process. Heinz Frei, a chemist Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, has been at the forefront of this research effort. His latest results represent an important step forward.

Relativity shakes a magnet

March 3, 2014 1:37 pm | News | Comments

Current technologies for writing, storing, and reading information are either charge-based or spin-based. The downside is that weak perturbations such as impurities or radiation can lead to uncontrolled charge redistributions and, as a consequence, to data loss. Researchers in Europe have predicted and discovered a new physical phenomenon that allows them to manipulate the state of a magnet by electric signals and eliminate this loss.

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Ultra-fast laser spectroscopy lights way to understanding new materials

March 3, 2014 11:54 am | News | Comments

Scientists at Ames Laboratory are revealing the mysteries of new materials using ultra-fast laser spectroscopy. Researchers recently used ultra-fast laser spectroscopy to examine and explain the mysterious electronic properties of iron-based superconductors. Seeing these dynamics is one emerging strategy to better understanding how these new materials work.

Physicists solve 20-year-old debate surrounding glassy surfaces

February 28, 2014 4:20 pm | News | Comments

U.K. scientists have succeeded in measuring how the surfaces of glassy materials flow like a liquid, even when they should be solid. A series of simple and elegant experiments were the solution to a problem that has been plaguing condensed matter physicists for the past 20 years. The finding has implications for thin-film coating designs.

Quirky photons spin out of the Standard Model

February 28, 2014 3:54 pm | News | Comments

Scientists in Switzerland have analyzed data collected at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider that offer a first-time observation of the polarization of the photon emitted in the weak decay of a bottom quark. This finding opens the way to future measurements, which may reveal a reality deeper than the one described by the present theory of elementary particles, the so-called Standard Model.

Researchers create coating material to prevent blood clots associated with implants

February 28, 2014 10:42 am | by Matthew Chin, Univ. of California, Los Angeles | News | Comments

A team of researchers has developed a material that could help prevent blood clots associated with catheters, heart valves, vascular grafts and other implanted biomedical devices. Blood clots at or near implanted devices are thought to occur when the flow of nitric oxide, a naturally occurring clot-preventing agent generated in the blood vessels, is cut off. When this occurs, the devices can fail.

Researchers discover highly promising new class of nanocatalyst

February 28, 2014 7:23 am | by Lyn Yarris, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

A big step in the development of advanced fuel cells and water-alkali electrolyzers has been achieved with the discovery of a new class of bimetallic nanocatalysts that are an order of magnitude higher in activity than the target set by the U.S. Department of Energy for 2017. The new catalysts feature a 3-D catalytic surface activity that makes them significantly more efficient and far less expensive than the best platinum catalysts.  

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Researchers develop ultrathin perfect ultraviolet light absorber

February 27, 2014 12:00 pm | News | Comments

Ultraviolet light (UV) has not only harmful effects on molecules and biological tissue like human skin but it also can impair the performance of organic solar cells upon long-term exposure. Researchers in Germany have now developed a so-called plasmonic metamaterial which is compatible with solar technology and completely absorbs UV light despite being only 20 nm thin.

Tiny tool measures heat at the nanoscale

February 27, 2014 11:10 am | News | Comments

How heat flows at the nanoscale can be very different than at larger scales, and researchers are working to understand how these features affect the transport of the fundamental units of heat, called phonons. At Cornell Univ. scientists have invented a phonon spectrometer whose measurements are 10 times sharper than standard methods. This boosted sensitivity has uncovered never-before-seen effects of phonon transport.

Nanoparticle networks' design enhanced by theory

February 26, 2014 5:22 pm | by Anne Ju, Cornell Univ. | News | Comments

Cornell Univ. researchers have recently led what is probably the most comprehensive study to date of block copolymer nanoparticle self-assembly processes. The work is important, because using polymers to self-assemble inorganic nanoparticles into porous structures could revolutionize electronics.

Superabsorbing design may lower manufacturing cost of thin-film solar cells

February 26, 2014 7:42 am | by Matt Shipman, News Services, North Carolina State Univ. | News | Comments

Researchers from North Carolina State Univ. have developed a superabsorbing design that may significantly improve the light absorption efficiency of thin-film solar cells and drive down manufacturing costs. The superabsorbing design could decrease the thickness of the semiconductor materials used in thin-film solar cells by more than one order of magnitude without compromising the capability of solar light absorption.

Scientists twist sound with metamaterials

February 25, 2014 5:14 pm | News | Comments

A Chinese-U.S. research team is exploring the use of metamaterials to create devices that manipulate sound in versatile and unprecedented ways. In a recently published paper, the team reports a simple design for a device, called an acoustic field rotator, which can twist wave fronts inside it so that they appear to be propagating from another direction.

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A cavity that you want

February 25, 2014 4:53 pm | by Cory Nealon, Univ. of Buffalo | News | Comments

Associated with unhappy visits to the dentist, “cavity” means something else in the science of optics. An arrangement of mirrors that allows beams of light to circulate in closed paths, or cavities, help us build laser and optical fibers. Now, a research team pushed the concept further by developing an optical “nanocavity” that boosts the amount of light that ultrathin semiconductors absorb.

Want your computer to go faster? Just add light

February 25, 2014 1:14 pm | by Angela Herring, Northeastern Univ. | News | Comments

Every second, your com­puter must process bil­lions of com­pu­ta­tional steps to pro­duce even the sim­plest out­puts. Imagine if every one of those steps could be made just a tiny bit more effi­cient. A Northeastern Univ. team has devel­oped a series of novel devices that do just that. The team combined their expertise to unearth a phys­ical phe­nom­enon that could usher in a new wave of highly efficient electronics.

New special air filter blocks small particles from getting inside cars

February 25, 2014 9:31 am | News | Comments

While taking in the scenery during long road trips, passengers also may be taking in potentially harmful ultrafine particles (UFPs) that come into the car through outdoor air vents. Closing the vents reduces UFPs, but causes exhaled carbon dioxide to build up. Now, scientists have developed a high-efficiency cabin air filter that could reduce UFP exposure by 93% and keep carbon dioxide levels low.

Silver linings

February 25, 2014 8:48 am | by Justin H.S. Breaux, Argonne National Laboratory | News | Comments

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory in collaboration with scientists at Northwestern Univ. are the first to grow graphene on silver which, until now, posed a major challenge to many in the field. Part of the issue has to do with the properties of silver, the other involves the process by which graphene is grown.

On the road to Mottronics

February 25, 2014 8:38 am | by Lynn Yarris, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

Mottronics is a term seemingly destined to become familiar to aficionados of electronic gadgets. Named for the Nobel laureate Nevill Francis Mott, Mottronics involve materials that can be induced to transition between electrically conductive and insulating phases. If these phase transitions can be controlled, Mott materials hold promise for future transistors and memories that feature higher energy efficiencies and faster switching speeds.

How to create selective holes in graphene

February 25, 2014 7:55 am | by David L. Chandler, MIT News Office | News | Comments

Researchers have devised a way of making tiny holes of controllable size in sheets of graphene, a development that could lead to ultra-thin filters for improved desalination or water purification. The team of researchers succeeded in creating subnanoscale pores in a sheet of the one-atom-thick material, which is one of the strongest materials known.

Researchers “design for failure” with model material

February 24, 2014 11:02 am | News | Comments

When deciding what materials to use in building something, determining how those materials respond to stress and strain is often the first task. A material’s macroscopic, or bulk, properties in this area is generally the product of what is happening on a microscopic scale. When stress causes a material’s constituent molecules to rearrange in a way such that they can't go back to their original positions, it is known as plastic deformation.

Microanalysis technique makes the most of small nanoparticle samples

February 24, 2014 10:31 am | News | Comments

Researchers from NIST and the FDA have demonstrated that they can make sensitive chemical analyses of minute samples of nanoparticles by, essentially, roasting them on top of a quartz crystal. The NIST-developed technique, "microscale thermogravimetric analysis," holds promise for studying nanomaterials in biology and the environment, where sample sizes often are quite small and larger-scale analysis won't work.

Team develops chemical solution for graphene challenges

February 24, 2014 9:15 am | News | Comments

Previous efforts to create graphene nanoribbons followed a top-down approach, using lithography and etching process to try to cut ribbons out of graphene sheets. Cutting ribbons 2 nm-wide is not practical, however, and these efforts have not been very successful. Now, a research team has developed a chemical approach to mass producing these graphene nanoribbons. This process that may provide an avenue to harnessing graphene's conductivity.

New, inexpensive production materials boost promise of hydrogen fuel

February 24, 2014 8:36 am | by Chris Barncard, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison | News | Comments

Generating electricity is not the only way to turn sunlight into energy we can use on demand. The sun can also drive reactions to create chemical fuels, such as hydrogen, that can in turn power cars and trains. The trouble with solar fuel production is the cost of producing the sun-capturing semiconductors and the catalysts to generate fuel.

Nanotracer tester tells about wells

February 24, 2014 7:55 am | News | Comments

A tabletop device invented at Rice Univ. can tell how efficiently a nanoparticle would travel through a well and may provide a wealth of information for oil and gas producers. The device gathers data on how tracers, microscopic particles that can be pumped into and recovered from wells, move through deep rock formations that have been opened by hydraulic fracturing.

Using viruses as nanoscale building blocks

February 21, 2014 11:28 am | by Mona S. Rowe, Brookhaven National Laboratory | News | Comments

From steel beams to plastic Lego bricks, building blocks come in many materials and all sizes. Today, science has opened the way to manufacturing at the nanoscale with biological materials. Potential applications range from medicine to optoelectronic devices. In a paper published in Soft Matter, scientists announced their discovery of a 2-D crystalline structure assembled from the outer shells of a virus.

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