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Better catalysts, made-to-order

February 13, 2015 11:03 am | by Joe Rojas-Burke, Univ. of Utah | News | Comments

Most of our medicine, plastics and synthetic fibers wouldn't exist without catalysts. And yet chemists don't fully understand how most catalysts work, and developing new catalysts often still depends on laborious trial-and-error. But in a new study, chemists captured enough data on the crucial steps in a reaction to accurately predict the structures of the most efficient catalysts.

Scientists shed light on controversial theory of protein structure

February 13, 2015 8:54 am | by Univ. of Bristol | News | Comments

A team of chemists, biochemists and mathematicians at the Univ. of Bristol have published a paper which explores how protein structures are stabilized. There are many forces that hold together the 3-D, functional structures of proteins. Despite considerable effort, understanding of these forces is still quite rudimentary.

Insight into how rubber is made could improve tires, reduce air pollution

February 13, 2015 8:44 am | by American Chemical Society | News | Comments

People have been making rubber products from elastic bands to tires for centuries, but a key step in this process has remained a mystery. In a report, scientists have described this elusive part of rubber production that could have major implications for improving the material and its uses. Their findings, if used to improve tire performance, for example, could mean higher gas mileage for consumers and less air pollution.

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Johnson & Johnson projects aim to spot who'll get a disease

February 12, 2015 10:58 am | by Linda A. Johnson, AP Business Writer | News | Comments

Imagine being able to identify people likely to develop a particular disease - and then stop it before it starts.                        

Water ice renders short-lived molecule sustainable

February 10, 2015 4:05 pm | by Wolfram Sander, Ruhr-Univ. Bochum | News | Comments

“Antiaromatic compounds” is what chemists call a class of ring molecules which are extremely instable. Because they exist for mere split seconds, they can only be detected by extremely demanding, ultra-fast methods. Researchers from the Cluster of Excellence RESOLV at Ruhr-Univ. Bochum have succeeded in isolating the antiaromatic fluorenyl cation at extremely low temperatures in water ice.

Buckyballs offer environmental benefits

February 10, 2015 9:25 am | by Mike Williams, Rice Univ. | News | Comments

Treated buckyballs not only remove valuable but potentially toxic metal particles from water and other liquids, but also reserve them for future use, according to scientists at Rice Univ. The Rice lab of chemist Andrew Barron has discovered that carbon-60 fullerenes (buckyballs) that have gone through the chemical process known as hydroxylation aggregate into pearl-like strings as they bind to and separate metals from solutions.

3D printing with custom molecules creates low-cost mechanical sensor

February 10, 2015 8:03 am | by Hannah Hickey, Univ. of Washington | News | Comments

Imagine printing out molecules that can respond to their surroundings. A research project at the Univ. of Washington merges custom chemistry and 3D printing. Scientists created a bone-shaped plastic tab that turns purple under stretching, offering an easy way to record the force on an object.

Precision growth of light-emitting nanowires

February 6, 2015 9:12 am | by Kate Greene, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | News | Comments

A novel approach to growing nanowires promises a new means of control over their light-emitting and electronic properties. In a recent issue of Nano Letters, scientists from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab demonstrated a new growth technique that uses specially engineered catalysts. These catalysts, which are precursors to growing the nanowires, have given scientists more options than ever in turning the color of light-emitting nanowires.

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Direct measurement of key molecule will increase accuracy of combustion models

February 6, 2015 7:50 am | by Patti Koning, Sandia National Laboratories | News | Comments

Sandia National Laboratories researchers are the first to directly measure hydroperoxyalkyl radicals, a class of reactive molecules denoted as “QOOH”, that are key in the chain of reactions that controls the early stages of combustion. This breakthrough has generated data on QOOH reaction rates and outcomes that will improve the fidelity of models used by engine manufacturers to create cleaner and more efficient cars and trucks.

Supercapacitors poised to help boost vehicle fuel efficiency

February 5, 2015 8:47 am | by American Chemical Society | News | Comments

Unlike slow and steady batteries, supercapacitors gulp up energy rapidly and deliver it in fast, powerful jolts. A growing array of consumer products is benefiting from these energy-storage devices, reports Chemical & Engineering News, with cars and trucks, and their drivers, poised to be major beneficiaries.

Potassium salt outperforms precious metals as a catalyst

February 5, 2015 8:18 am | by Kimm Fesenmaier, Caltech | News | Comments

A team of Caltech chemists has discovered a method for producing a group of silicon-containing organic chemicals without relying on expensive precious metal catalysts. Instead, the new technique uses as a catalyst a cheap, abundant chemical that is commonly found in chemistry labs around the world, potassium tert-butoxide, to help create a host of products ranging from new medicines to advanced materials.

Understanding air pollution from biomass burners used for heating

February 4, 2015 2:37 pm | by American Chemical Society | News | Comments

As many places in the U.S. and Europe increasingly turn to biomass rather than fossil fuels for power and heat, scientists are focusing on what this trend might mean for air quality and people’s health. One study on wood-chip burners’ particulate emissions, which can cause heart and lung problems, appears in Energy & Fuels. The scientists say the findings could help manufacturers reduce the negative impact of this fuel in the future.

Hydrogen sulfide could help lower blood pressure

January 29, 2015 4:30 pm | by Univ. of Exter Medical School | News | Comments

A gas that gives rotten eggs their distinctive odor could one day form the basis of new cardiovascular therapies. Research has indicated that a new compound, called AP39, which generates minute quantities of the gas hydrogen sulfide inside cells, could be beneficial in cases of high blood pressure and diseases of the blood vessels that occur with aging and diabetes.

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Refineries challenge EPA plan to cut emissions

January 29, 2015 10:26 am | by American Chemical Society | News | Comments

A rule proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency that aims to curb emissions from oil refineries and petrochemical manufacturers is causing tensions to flare between the agency and industry groups. The agency is reviewing a flood of public comments on the issue and is expected to finalize the rule by April 17, according to an article in Chemical & Engineering News.

Detecting chemical weapons with a color-changing film

January 29, 2015 8:39 am | by American Chemical Society | News | Comments

In today’s world, in which the threat of terrorism looms, there is an urgent need for fast, reliable tools to detect the release of deadly chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In ACS Macro Letters, scientists are reporting new progress toward thin-film materials that could rapidly change colors in the presence of CWAs.

Beer compound could help fend off Alzheimer’s

January 28, 2015 10:40 am | by American Chemical Society | News | Comments

The health-promoting perks of wine have attracted the spotlight recently, leaving beer in the shadows. But scientists are discovering new ways in which the latter could be a more healthful beverage than once thought. They’re now reporting that a compound from hops could protect brain cells from damage, and potentially slow the development of disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

“Bulletproof” battery

January 28, 2015 9:55 am | by Nicole Casal Moore, Univ. of Michigan | News | Comments

New battery technology from the Univ. of Michigan should be able to prevent the kind of fires that grounded Boeing 787 Dreamliners in 2013. The innovation is an advanced barrier between the electrodes in a lithium-ion battery. Made with nanofibers extracted from Kevlar, the tough material in bulletproof vests, the barrier stifles the growth of metal tendrils that can become unwanted pathways for electrical current.

Man trumps dog: Earlier assumption about BPA exposure confirmed

January 28, 2015 8:18 am | by Mary Beckman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | News | Comments

Coating the mouth with BPA-containing food does not lead to higher than expected levels of BPA in blood, according to a new study. The study concludes that oral exposure does not create a risk for high exposures. BPA, also known as bisphenol A, is used to make some plastics and to seal canned food containers against bacterial contamination. Food, which picks up trace amounts of BPA from packaging, is the major source of human exposure.

New step towards future production of solar fuels

January 26, 2015 9:31 am | by Linda Koffmar, Uppsala Univ. | News | Comments

One way of storing solar energy is to transform the energy directly into a fuel. Researchers at Uppsala Univ. have shown a reaction which makes the process of creating fuel from solar energy more efficient and less energy demanding. Solar energy is abundant. In one hour, the Earth receives as much energy from the sun as humankind uses in a whole year.

Chemists find a way to unboil eggs

January 26, 2015 9:25 am | by Janet Wilson, Univ. of California, Irvine | News | Comments

Univ. of California, Irvine and Australian chemists have figured out how to unboil egg whites, an innovation that could dramatically reduce costs for cancer treatments, food production and other segments of the $160 billion global biotechnology industry, according to findings published in ChemBioChem.

Chromium-centered cycloparaphenylene rings for making functionalized nanocarbons

January 26, 2015 8:51 am | by Institute of Transformative Biomolecules, Nagoya Univ. | News | Comments

A team of chemists at Nagoya Univ. has synthesized novel transition metal-complexed cycloparaphenylenes (CPPs) that enable selective monofunctionalization of CPPs for the first time, opening doors to the construction of unprecedented nanocarbons. The team has synthesized novel CPP chromium complexes and demonstrated their utility in obtaining monofunctionalized CPPs, which could be useful for making carbon nanotubes.

Scientists shed new light on biomass breakdown

January 26, 2015 8:18 am | by David Garner, Senior Press Officer, Univ. of York | News | Comments

Scientists at the Univ. of York are part of a research team which has found that a recently discovered family of enzymes can degrade resistant forms of starch. Earlier research established that the enzymes, lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs), are able to degrade hard-to-digest biomass into its constituent sugars.

Oranges versus orange juice: Which one might be better for your health?

January 23, 2015 10:47 am | by American Chemical Society | News | Comments

Many health advocates advise people to eat an orange and drink water rather than opt for a serving of sugary juice. But in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, scientists report that the picture is not clear-cut. Although juice is indeed high in sugar, the scientists found that certain nutrients in orange juice might be easier for the body to absorb than when a person consumes them from unprocessed fruit.

Is glass a true solid?

January 22, 2015 7:54 am | by Hannah Johnson, Univ. of Bristol | News | Comments

Does glass ever stop flowing? Researchers have combined computer simulation and information theory, originally invented for telephone communication and cryptography, to answer this puzzling question. Watching a glass blower at work we can clearly see the liquid nature of hot glass. Once the glass has cooled down to room temperature though, it has become solid and we can pour wine in it or make window panes out of it.

Engineers use x-rays to illuminate catalysis, revise theories

January 21, 2015 9:11 am | by Andrew Myers, Stanford Univ. | News | Comments

Many of today's most promising renewable energy technologies rely upon catalysts to expedite the chemical reactions at the heart of their potential. Catalysts are materials that enhance chemical reactions without being consumed in the process. For over a century, engineers across the world have engaged in a near-continual search for ways to improve catalysts for their devices and processes.

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