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Researchers call for marine observation network

April 11, 2013 3:31 am | News | Comments

A comprehensive marine biodiversity observation network could be established with modest funding within five years, according to a recently published assessment from a team led by J. Emmett Duffy of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science. Such a network, they say, would fill major gaps in scientists' understanding of the global distribution of marine organisms.

Ocean nutrients a key component of future change. say scientists

April 11, 2013 2:18 am | News | Comments

Variations in nutrient availability in the world's oceans could be a vital component of future environmental change, according a research team. Their research reviews what we know about ocean nutrient patterns and interactions, and how they might be influenced by future climate change and other man-made factors. The authors also highlight how nutrient cycles influence climate by fuelling biological production.

Research shows Gulf of Mexico resilient after spill

April 8, 2013 5:54 pm | News | Comments

The Gulf of Mexico may have a much greater natural ability to self-clean oil spills than previously believed, according to Terry Hazen, University of Tennessee-Oak Ridge National Laboratory Governor's Chair for Environmental Biotechnology. Hazen’s research team used a powerful new approach for identifying microbes in the environment to discover previously unknown and naturally occurring bacteria that consume and break down crude oil.

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Extreme algae blooms the new normal?

April 4, 2013 7:36 am | News | Comments

In 2011, Lake Erie experienced a record-breaking algae bloom that began in the lake's Western region in mid-July and eventually covered an area of 230 square miles. At its peak in October, the bloom had expanded to more than 1,930 square miles, three times greater than any other bloom on record. According to recent research, the bloom was triggered by long-term agricultural practices coupled with extreme precipitation, followed by weak lake circulation and warm temperatures.

Amazon CEO recovers Apollo engines from Atlantic

March 21, 2013 8:54 am | by Alicia Chang, AP Science Writer | News | Comments

Rusted pieces of two Apollo-era rocket engines that helped boost astronauts to the moon have been fished out of the murky depths of the Atlantic by Amazon.com CEO Jeff Bezos. A privately funded expedition led by Bezos raised the main engine parts during three weeks at sea, about 360 miles from Cape Canaveral. The engine parts were resting nearly 3 miles deep in the Atlantic

Scientists discover layer of liquified molten rock in Earth’s mantle

March 20, 2013 2:30 pm | News | Comments

Using advanced seafloor electromagnetic imaging technology, scientists with Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution imaged a 25-km-thick layer of partially melted mantle rock below the edge of the Cocos plate where it moves beneath Central America. The finding of this layer, which may be responsible for the sliding motions of the planet’s massive tectonic plates, could have far-reaching implications to our understanding of geologic processes.

Under California: An ancient tectonic plate

March 18, 2013 4:39 pm | News | Comments

Large chunks of an ancient tectonic plate that slid under North America millions of years ago are still present under parts of central California and Mexico, according to new research led by Brown University geophysicists. Called the Isabella anomaly—a large mass of cool, dehydrated material about 100 km beneath central California—is in fact a surviving slab of the ancient Farallon oceanic plate driven deep into the Earth’s mantle about 100 million years ago.

Ocean plankton sponge up nearly twice the carbon currently assumed

March 18, 2013 10:38 am | News | Comments

According to new research, models of carbon dioxide in the world’s oceans need to be revised.  Trillions of plankton near the surface of warm waters are far more carbon-rich than has long been thought global marine temperature fluctuations could mean that tiny microbes digest double the carbon previously calculated. 

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Mysterious bacterium found in Antarctic lake

March 13, 2013 9:57 am | by Vladimir Isachenkov, Associated Press | News | Comments

A new form of microbial life has been found in water samples taken from a giant freshwater lake hidden under kilometers of Antarctic ice, Russian scientists said Monday. In a prepared statement, the researchers said that the "unidentified and unclassified" bacterium has no relation to any of the existing bacterial types. They touched the lake water Sunday at a depth of 12,366 feet (3,769 m), about 800 miles (1,300 km) east of the South Pole in the central part of the continent.

Study: Glaciers contribute significant iron in Atlantic Ocean

March 11, 2013 4:24 pm | News | Comments

All living organisms rely on iron as an essential nutrient. In the ocean, iron’s abundance or scarcity means all the difference as it fuels the growth of plankton. A new study from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution identifies an unexpectedly large source of iron to the North Atlantic—meltwater from glaciers and ice sheets, which may stimulate plankton growth. This source is likely to increase as melting of the Greenland ice sheet escalates under a warming climate.

Earth warmer today than during most of past 11,300 years

March 8, 2013 9:55 am | News | Comments

With data from 73 ice and sediment core monitoring sites around the world, scientists have recently reconstructed Earth's temperature history back to the end of the last Ice Age. The analysis reveals that the planet today is warmer than it's been during 70 to 80% of the last 11,300 years.

How to thrive in battery acid and among toxic metals

March 8, 2013 9:50 am | News | Comments

Like the extraterrestrial creature in the movie Alien, the "extremophile" red alga Galdieria sulphuraria can survive brutal heat and resist the effects of toxins. Scientists were previously unsure of how a one-celled alga acquired such flexibility and resilience. But recently they made an unexpected discovery: Galdieria's genome shows clear signs of borrowing genes from its neighbors.

Study reveals coastal regions’ sensitivity to ocean acidification

March 1, 2013 2:18 pm | News | Comments

A continental-scale chemical survey in the waters of the eastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico is helping researchers determine how distinct bodies of water will resist changes in acidity. The study, which measures varying levels of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon in the ocean. According to the survey, different regions of coastal ocean will respond to an influx of carbon dioxide in different ways.

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Researchers marvel at world's deepest sea vents

February 27, 2013 10:03 pm | by David McFadden, Associated Press | News | Comments

Researchers steering a remote-controlled submarine around the world's deepest known hydrothermal vents have collected numerous samples from depths reaching more than 3 miles below the sea's surface between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica. They believe that laboratory analysis in the coming months will reveal some new life forms that have evolved in the pitch-black vent areas of the Cayman Trough, where mineral-rich fluid gushes from volcanic chimneys.

Study: First evidence that magnetism helps salmon find home

February 11, 2013 9:24 am | News | Comments

When migrating, sockeye salmon typically swim up to 4,000 miles into the ocean and then, years later, navigate back to the upstream reaches of the rivers in which they were born to spawn their young. Scientists have long wondered how salmon find their way to their home rivers over such epic distances. A new study suggests that salmon find their home rivers by sensing the rivers' unique magnetic signature.

Nitrogen from pollution, natural sources causes growth of toxic algae

February 8, 2013 7:56 am | News | Comments

Researchers recently found that nitrogen entering the ocean—whether through natural processes or pollution—boosts the growth and toxicity of a group of phytoplankton that can cause the human illness “amnesic shellfish poisoning”. Commonly found in marine waters off the North American West Coast, these diatoms produce a potent toxin called domoic acid. When these phytoplankton grow rapidly into massive blooms, high concentrations of domoic acid put human health at risk if it accumulates in shellfish.

U.K.'s space age Antarctic base can slide across ice

February 6, 2013 12:29 pm | by Rapahel Satter, Associated Press | News | Comments

British researchers have unveiled a futuristic Antarctic research base that can move, sliding across the frozen surface to beat the shifting ice and pounding snow that doomed its predecessors. Its builders hope that the Halley VI Research Station, the sixth facility to occupy the site on the Brunt Ice Shelf, can adapt to the unpredictable ice conditions.

Scientists find “bipolar” marine bacteria, refuting biological theory

January 15, 2013 9:46 am | News | Comments

In another blow to the "Everything is Everywhere" tenet of bacterial distribution in the ocean, scientists at the Marine Biological Laboratory have found "bipolar" species of bacteria that occur in the Arctic and Antarctic, but nowhere else. And, surprisingly, they found even fewer bipolar species than would turn up by chance if marine bacteria were randomly distributed everywhere.

Giant squid captured on video in ocean depths

January 9, 2013 6:24 pm | by Malcolm Foster, Associated Press | News | Comments

After years of searching, scientists and broadcasters say they have captured video images of a giant squid in its natural habitat deep in the ocean for the first time. Japanese public broadcaster NHK released photographs of the giant squid this week ahead of Sunday's show about the encounter. The Discovery Channel will air its program on Jan. 27.

On the ice: Trio of complex Antarctic science efforts reach milestones

December 21, 2012 1:06 pm | News | Comments

In the past week, researchers with the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (WAIS) project, the Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project and the Pine Island Glacier (PIG) project each announced they had achieved these various milestones. In each case, the successes were based on innovative drilling technologies and promise to open new scientific vistas for Antarctic research.

Scientists track ocean currents using uranium-236

December 17, 2012 12:35 pm | News | Comments

Atmospheric nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s produced significant amounts of uranium-236. This isotope readily dissolves in seawater, giving researchers today the opportunity to investigate ocean currents by monitoring its concentration. Until recent advances in heavy ion mass spectrometry, however, this type of detection was considered impossible.

Top officials meet at ONR in response to Arctic changes

December 14, 2012 10:28 am | by David Smalley, Office of Naval Research | News | Comments

The rapid retreat of sea ice in the Arctic has attracted the attention of top naval officials who have recently held an Arctic Summit at the Office of Naval Research to discuss their reponse to what will likely be a increased volume of human activity in the region. Although the meeting did not discuss policy, it did highlight the many potential areas of impact, from oil drilling to tourism.

Crevasses, bendable ice affect stability of Antartica ice shelf

December 10, 2012 8:09 am | News | Comments

Gaping crevasses that penetrate upward from the bottom of the largest remaining ice shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula make it more susceptible to collapse, according to researchers who spent the last four Southern Hemisphere summers studying the massive Larsen C Ice Shelf. But the team, which used radar technology to study the composition of the ice shelf, also identified structures that contributed to the shelf’s resilience.

Scientists unravel the mystery of marine methane oxidation

November 13, 2012 10:39 am | News | Comments

Vast amounts of methane are stored under the ocean floor, and anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate respiration prevents the release of this gas. Though discovered decades ago, the mechanism for how microorganisms performed this reaction has remained a mystery. According to recent findings, a single microorganism can do this on its own, and does not need to be carried out in collaboration with a bacterium as previously thought.

A strange diet for methane-consuming microorganisms

November 6, 2012 12:36 pm | News | Comments

To keep cellular systems running all cells need fuel. For certain ocean-dwelling microorganisms, methane can be such a fuel. But researchers studying these creatures had previously assumed that the methane they consumed was used as a carbon source. However, recent studies have surprisingly shown that is not the case and will force scientists to reevaluate the microorganisms’ role in inactivating environmental methane.

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