Carbon is the fourth-most-abundant element in the universe and takes on a wide variety of forms, called allotropes, including diamond and graphite. Scientists at Carnegie's Geophysical Laboratory are part of a team that has discovered a new form of carbon, which is capable of withstanding extreme pressure stresses that were previously observed only in diamond.
Stanford researchers have used nanotechnology to invent a better lithium ion battery cathode. The researchers have used sulfur-coated hollow carbon nanofibers and an electrolyte additive to fabricate a superior rechargeable lithium battery cathode. Putting silicon nanowire anodes and sulfur-coated carbon cathodes into one battery could be the next generation in battery design.
By harnessing plasmonics to intensify light, engineers at Stanford University have created an ultra-compact nonlinear light source that shrinks a large-scale, high-energy device to the nanoscale.
Stanford University Earth scientists lend geophysical support to a theory of life's origins—but show that, if it's accurate, the first organisms could only have arisen during one brief stretch of geological time, long ago.
A readily portable miniature microscope weighing less than 2 g and tiny enough to balance on your fingertip has been developed by Stanford University researchers. The scope is designed to see fluorescent markers, such as dyes, commonly used by medical and biological researchers studying the brains of mice.
The strength of a chemical bond between atoms is the fundamental basis for a molecule's stability and reactivity. Tuning the strength and accessibility of the bond can dramatically change a molecule's properties. New research by a team from two European universities and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory shows that attractive forces between other parts of a molecule can make a stretched bond joining two carbon atoms much more stable than expected.
Flies like watching computer screens as much as the next animal. Set them on a trackball in front of a monitor, and they'll follow the action—if the images in front of them move in one direction, the flies will try to move the same way. That's because flies—like humans—can perceive what researchers call "phi motion."
By finding a clever way to use the Earth itself as a scientific instrument, members of a SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory-led research team turned the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope into a positron detector and confirmed a startling discovery from 2009 that found an excess of these antimatter particles in cosmic rays, a possible sign of dark matter.
Stanford University researchers have gotten a glimpse into an uncertain future where increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere will lead to higher levels in the ocean as well, leaving the water more acidic and altering underwater ecosystems.
More and more natural gas is being extracted from underground shale deposits, but environmental concerns have been raised. Stanford geophysicist Mark Zoback, who recently served on a Department of Energy panel of experts, says it can be done safely.
A team at the Stanford University School of Medicine has cataloged, down to the letter, exactly what parts of the genetic code are essential for survival in one bacterial species, Caulobacter crescentus .
Sunspots spawn solar flares that can cause billions of dollars in damage to satellites, communications networks, and power grids. But Stanford University researchers have developed a way to detect incipient sunspots as deep as 65,000 km inside the sun, providing up to two days' advance warning of a damaging solar flare.
Could it be love? Rats infected with the parasite Toxoplasma seem to lose their fear of cats—or at least cat urine. Now Stanford researchers have discovered that the brains of those infected, fearless male rats show activity in the region that normally triggers a mating response when they meet a female rat.
Stanford University researchers have invented a transparent lithium-ion battery that is also highly flexible. It is comparable in cost to regular batteries on the market today, with great potential for applications in consumer electronics.
A handful of muck or a bucket of water can teem with millions of microorganisms—a few of which could be the next big thing when it comes to learning how to create biofuels or understanding the planet's carbon cycle. Exploring the microbial world is getting easier thanks to one of the world's largest databases of genetic "fingerprints" maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists.
In a typical year, California gets about 30% of its water from groundwater wells. Yet when it comes to managing this precious resource, the state relies on a mixed bag of more than 2,000 local water agencies with varying degrees of authority. Critics say that this decentralized system leaves the state vulnerable to overdraft. But according to a new report published by Stanford University's Program on Water in the West, a surprising number of local water districts are taking on the challenge of groundwater protection.
Existing underwater microphones, called hydrophones, have a limited range of sensitivity and does not perform well at depth. Taking a cue from champion ocean listeners like the orca, Stanford researchers invented a new microphone that is at home in any depth, and can detect anything from a whisper to an explosion of TNT.
The process of splitting water into pure oxygen and clean-burning hydrogen fuel has long been the Holy Grail for clean-energy advocates as a method of large-scale energy storage, but the idea faces technical challenges. Stanford researchers may have solved one of the most important ones.
Glass, by definition, is amorphous; its atoms lack order and are arranged every which way. But when scientists squeezed tiny samples of a metallic glass under high pressure, they got a surprise: The atoms lined up in a regular pattern to form a single crystal.
Fear burns memories into our brain, and new research by Univ. of California, Berkeley, neuroscientists explains how. Scientists have long known that fear and other highly emotional experiences lead to incredibly strong memories. In a study, UC Berkeley's Daniela Kaufer and colleagues report a new way for emotions to affect memory: The brain’s emotional center, the amygdala, induces the hippocampus, a relay hub for memory, to generate new neurons.
New research by sociologists from two universities and a medical center reports that studies in adult and embryonic stem cells are complementary. According to the researchers, incentives to use both types of cell in comparative studies are high, and banning either type of stems cells and the research involving them could have negative impacts on the other.
The tropics and much of the Northern Hemisphere are likely to experience an irreversible rise in summer temperatures within the next 20 to 60 years if atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase, according to a new climate study by Stanford Univ. scientists.
UC Berkeley will be one of five leading universities to launch Bosch Group’s new $10 million energy initiative, designed to promote research and education in the United States. The Bosch Energy Research Network project will provide two-year grant opportunities—at $150,000 per year—to develop transformative energy technologies for production.
The earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan on March 11 were generated on a fault that didn't rupture in the usual fashion, according to a study by researchers at Stanford Univ. and the Univ. of Tokyo. The quake’s motion amplified fault slip near the surface, causing violent seafloor sediment deformations previously seen only in computer simulations.
Scientists have already discovered that they can “read” minds by watching brain activity with a magnetic resonance imaging. They can tell, for example, when a person is looking at a particular photo. A Stanford computer scientist has taken the experiment further, however, showing that minds are “readable” even after drastic changes are made to the photos.