New research shows that a tiny piece of RNA has an essential role in ensuring that embryonic tissue segments form properly. The study, conducted in chicken embryos, determined that this piece of RNA regulates cyclical gene activity that defines the timing of the formation of tissue segments that later become muscle and vertebrae.
When renowned explorer Richard E. Byrd returned from the first-ever flight to the...
A once-promising approach for using next-generation, ultra-intense lasers to help...
Scientists have shown that an enzyme in corn responsible for reading information from...
The same material that formed the first primitive transistors more than 60 years ago can be modified in a new way to advance future electronics, according to a new study. Chemists at The Ohio State University have developed the technology for making a one-atom-thick sheet of germanium, and found that it conducts electrons more than ten times faster than silicon and five times faster than conventional germanium.
A new form of clean coal technology reached an important milestone recently, with the successful operation of a research-scale combustion system at Ohio State University. The technology is now ready for testing at a larger scale. For 203 continuous hours, the Ohio State combustion unit produced heat from coal while capturing 99% of the carbon dioxide produced in the reaction.
A new study of the batteries commonly used in hybrid and electric-only cars has revealed an unexpected factor that could limit the performance of batteries currently on the road. Researchers led by Ohio State University engineers examined used car batteries and discovered that over time lithium accumulates beyond the battery electrodes—in the "current collector," a sheet of copper which facilitates electron transfer between the electrodes and the car's electrical system.
Researchers have made a genetic analysis of the microbes living deep inside a deposit of Marcellus Shale at a hydraulic fracturing. They expected to find many tough microbes, such as single-celled archaea, suited to extreme environments. Instead, they found very few genetic biomarkers for archaea, and many more for species that derive from bacteria.They also found that the populations of microbes changed dramatically over a short period of time.
A new way to visualize single-cell activity in living zebrafish embryos has allowed scientists to clarify how cells line up in the right place at the right time to receive signals about the next phase of their life. The findings increase understanding of cyclical behaviors in all types of cells at many developmental stages.
After carefully studying the structure of butterfly wings and rice leaves, Ohio State University engineers designed a coated plastic surface resembling a butterfly wing’s texture. Butterflies in the wild need to have bright, clean wings for reproduction and flying, and the surface created by engineers was reportedly easier to keep free of dust particles than a flat surface. The finding could inform designs for a variety of surfaces in various industries.
Researchers have discovered why plants and animals had a hard time recovering from the largest mass extinction in Earth’s history 250 million years ago. The reason: global warming. Because of environmental consequences of rising temperatures, those species that survived the extinction didn’t fully recover for 5 million years.
Some RNA molecules spend time in a restful state akin to hibernation rather than automatically carrying out their established job of delivering protein-building instructions in cells. This restful period appears to be a programmed step for RNA produced by certain types of genes. Protein production in cells is not as clear-cut as biology textbooks suggest, scientists say.
Algae are high on the genetic engineering agenda as a potential source for biofuel, and they should be subjected to independent studies of any environmental risks that could be linked to cultivating algae for this purpose, two prominent researchers say. The researchers argue that ecology experts should be among scientists given independent authority and adequate funding to explore any potential unintended consequences of this technological pursuit.
Researchers have found a way to use GPS to measure short-term changes in the rate of ice loss on Greenland—and reveal a surprising link between the ice and the atmosphere above it. The study hints at the potential for GPS to detect many consequences of climate change, including ice loss, the uplift of bedrock, changes in air pressure—and perhaps even sea level rise.
Chronic exposure to dim light at night can lead to depressive symptoms in rodents—but these negative effects can be reversed simply by returning to a standard light-dark cycle, a new study suggests. These findings add to the growing evidence that suggest chronic exposure to artificial light at night may play some role in the rising rates of depression in humans during the past 50 years.
Researchers who are studying a new magnetic effect that converts heat to electricity have discovered how to amplify it a thousand times over—a first step in making the technology more practical.
A biomedical informatics researcher who tracks dangerous viruses as they spread around the globe has restructured his innovative tracking software to promote even wider use of the program around the world.
Two recent studies that tested two ways to protect autoworkers from injury found letting autoworkers sit while they reach into a car's interior to perform assembly could help prevent shoulder and back strain. But a possibly better overall solution the researchers suggested might be to tilt the entire car so that workers can stand up.
Letting autoworkers sit while they reach into a car's interior could help prevent shoulder and back strain—but another solution might be to tilt the entire car so that workers can stand up. That's the finding of two recent studies, which tested two ways to protect autoworkers from injury.
Surveying the wide range of parallel system architectures offered in the supercomputer market, an Ohio state University researcher recently sought to establish some side-by-side performance comparisons.
A new method to reveal the structure of proteins could help researchers understand biological molecules—both those involved in causing disease and those performing critical functions in healthy cells. The new solid-state NMR method uses paramagnetic tags to help visualize the shape of protein molecules.
Using a new ultrafast camera, researchers have recorded the first real-time image of two atoms vibrating in a molecule. Key to the experiment is the researchers' use of the energy of a molecule's own electron as a kind of "flash bulb" to illuminate the molecular motion.
Every year, more and stronger chemicals are introduced into our bodies to fight disease, but have little knowledge of how they impact some of our most important cells. Bioengineers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and the University of California, Berkeley will soon launch an effort to find out whether stem cells react to chemicals in fundamentally different ways than other cells.
Researchers are beginning their analysis of what are probably the first successful ice cores drilled to bedrock from a glacier in the eastern European Alps. With luck, that analysis will yield a record of past climate and environmental changes in the region for several centuries, and perhaps even covering the last 1,000 years.
A new study has identified a gene mutation that researchers estimate dates back to 11,600 B.C., making it the second oldest human disease mutation yet discovered. Researchers say that although the mutation, which causes a rare vitamin deficiency, is found in vastly different ethnic populations, it originated in a single, prehistoric individual and was passed down to that individual's descendents.
As the Greenland Ice Sheet melts, the rockbound coast rises, as much at 15 mm or more per year. According to results from GPS stations around the island, the temperature spike in 2010 lifted the bedrock a detectably higher amount in a short five-month period.
New research from Northwestern University and Ohio State University shows that the average age at which Nobel laureates in chemistry, physics and physiology or medicine do their prize-winning work is increasing. The trend may have less to do with longer life spans than with how researchers are trained.
One researcher said it was a one-in-ten-million chance, but a satellite altimeter was in the right at the right time to detect, for the first time ever, a long-theorized merging tsunami. The waves effectively doubled the destruction in Japan.
A planet made of diamonds may sound lovely, but you wouldn't want to live there. A new study suggests that some stars in the Milky Way could harbor "carbon super-Earths", giant terrestrial planets that contain up to 50% diamond. But if they exist, those planets are likely devoid of life as we know it.