Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy are not likely to be signals of dark matter, but rather other astrophysical phenomena, such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands.
An international group of physicists led by the University of Arkansas has created an artificial material with a structure comparable to graphene. “We’ve basically created the first artificial graphene-like structure with transition metal atoms in place of carbon atoms,” said Jak Chakhalian. “This discovery gives us the ability to create graphene-like structures for many other elements,” said Srimanta Middey.
Phosphine is one of the newest materials to be named a superconductor, a material through which electricity can flow with zero resistance. In 2015, scientists reported that they had liquefied the chemical and squeezed it under high pressure in a diamond vise to achieve superconductivity. Now, a different group of researchers is providing insight into what may have happened to the phosphine as it underwent this intense compression.
Engineers found a way to keep a cancerous tumor from growing by using nanoparticles of the main ingredient in common antacid tablets. They used two novel methods to create nanoparticles from calcium carbonate that were injected intravenously into a mouse model to treat solid tumors. The compound changed the pH of the tumor environment, from acidic to more alkaline, and kept the cancer from growing.
At the atomic level, bismuth displays a number of quirky physical phenomena. A new study reveals a novel mechanism for controlling the energy transfer between electrons and the bismuth crystal lattice. Mastering this effect could, ultimately, help convert waste heat back into electricity, for example to improve the overall efficiency of solar cells.
Of all of Saturn’s rings, the B-ring is the most opaque and most massive. In fact, it’s the most opaque ring in the solar system, according to NASA. But it’s not well understood. Researchers reported their results from “weighing” the B-ring’s opaque center for the first time. They achieved the feat by analyzing the ring’s spiral density waves, which are created by the gravitational forces from both Saturn’s moons and the planet itself.
Despite advances in the field of volcanology, volcanoes are still unpredictable behemoths, capable of spurting forth magma and ash at a moment’s notice. But scientists from the University of Oxford, Durham University, and the Vesuvius Volcano Observatory are attempting to understand what makes a volcano tick, or, more aptly, erupt. To do that, they’re looking to the past.
A series of aerofoil-shaped panels downwind of an airport runway could break up the plumes of exhaust gases from departing aircraft, preventing those gases from staying near the ground and so dispersing them more quickly. A similar array could be used to prevent vehicle pollutants accumulating downwind of motorways, or even to disperse ground frosts over arable fields.
Thanks to a small screen on their skis, backcountry skiers can see various data recorded by sensors as they ski. The length and number of turns going up, their cadence and even the symmetry of their steps appear on the device. It was developed by an EPFL spin-off that teamed up with a local equipment manufacturer. The device, which attaches directly to the skis, is small and light and loaded with sensors.
Scientists in northeast Germany have flipped the switch on an experiment they hope will advance the quest for nuclear fusion, considered a clean and safe form of nuclear power. German Chancellor Angela Merkel, a physicist herself, pushed the button on February 3, 2016, to inject a tiny amount of hydrogen into the Wendelstein 7-X device at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics in Greifswald.
For the first time, scientists have entangled four photons in their orbital angular momentum. Leiden physicists sent a laser through a crystal, thereby creating four photons with coupled rotation. So far, this has only been done for two photons. The discovery makes uncrackable secret communication of complex information possible between multiple parties.
On the outskirts of the Rho Ophiuchi cloud complex, which is about 400 light-years from Earth, a Flying Saucer glows. Okay, the Flying Saucer isn’t a spaceship. It’s a young star officially known as 2MASS J16281370-243139.
California is committed to 33 percent energy from renewable resources by 2020. With that deadline fast approaching, researchers across the state are busy exploring options.
Research has identified a genetic mechanism that is likely to drive mutations that can lead to cancer.
Researchers have developed a new biosensor test system based on magnetic nanoparticles. It is designed to provide highly accurate measurements of the concentration of protein molecules (e.g. markers, which indicate the onset or development of a disease) in various samples, including opaque solutions or strongly colored liquids.