Graham George and Ingrid Pickering, a husband and wife x-ray research team, have worked for decades to understand how contaminants in water and soil are taken up by the body and affect human health. Much of that research has taken place at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, where both are former staff scientists.
A booming economy and population led China to emerge in 2006 as the global leader in fossil-fuel carbon emissions, a distinction it still maintains. But exactly how much carbon China releases has been a topic of debate, with recent estimates varying by as much as 15%.
Besides the atoms that make up our bodies and all of the objects we encounter in everyday life, the universe also contains mysterious dark matter and dark energy. The latter, which causes galaxies to accelerate away from one another, constitutes the majority of the universe’s energy and mass.
Mimicking photosynthesis is not easy. The bottleneck of artificial photosynthesis is visible light, because converting it into other forms of energy is not efficient. Researchers at Michigan Technological Univ. have found a way to solve this issue, leading to an efficient technique to produce hydrogen fuel.
Rice Univ. scientists are cleaning soil contaminated by oil spills in a way that saves energy and reclaims the soil’s fertility. They use a process known as pyrolysis, which involves heating contaminated soils in the absence of oxygen. This approach is much better for the environment than standard incineration techniques for fast remediation, said Rice environmental engineer Pedro Alvarez.
Rice Univ. chemists who developed a unique form of graphene have found a way to embed metallic nanoparticles that turn the material into a useful catalyst for fuel cells and other applications. Laser-induced graphene, created by the Rice lab of chemist James Tour last year, is a flexible film with a surface of porous graphene made by exposing a common plastic known as polyimide to a commercial laser-scribing beam.
An international group of researchers led by Carnegie Mellon Univ. physicists Mathias Lösche and Frank Heinrich have established the structure of an important tumor-suppressing protein, PTEN. Their findings provide new insights into how the protein regulates cell growth and how mutations in the gene that encodes the protein can lead to cancer.
In the 1930s, Irving Langmuir and his colleague Katharine Blodgett were working long days in the General Electric Company’s research laboratory. Together, they discovered that by spreading molecules with volatile organic solvents on the surface of water, they could create a one-molecule-thick film and use it as an anti-reflective coating for glass.
A team at the Univ. of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics has created a laser capable of generating ultra-short pulses of light even under extremely difficult external conditions. This unique combination of precision and resilience is due to the fact that the whole process of generating femtosecond laser pulses takes place within a specially selected optical fiber.
Researchers using the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have sorted through the billions of subatomic particles that zip through its frozen cubic-kilometer-sized detector each year to gather powerful new evidence in support of 2013 observations confirming the existence of cosmic neutrinos.
Dozens of new 2-D materials similar to graphene are now available, thanks to research from Univ. of Manchester scientists. These 2-D crystals are capable of delivering designer materials with revolutionary new properties. The problem has been that the vast majority of these atomically thin 2-D crystals are unstable in air, so react and decompose before their properties can be determined and their potential applications investigated.
The solid waste left over from wine-making could make a competitive biofuel, Univ. of Adelaide researchers have found. Published in Bioresource Technology, the researchers showed that up to 400 L of bioethanol could be produced by fermentation of a ton of grape marc (the leftover skins, stalks and seeds from wine-making).
Scientists at The Ohio State Univ. have developed a nearly complete human brain in a dish that equals the brain maturity of a five-week-old fetus. The brain organoid, engineered from adult human skin cells, is the most complete human brain model yet developed, said Rene Anand, professor of biological chemistry and pharmacology at Ohio State.
Being betrayed is worse than just being attacked. Someone you trusted as a friend and ally suddenly stabs you in the back. According to a team of researchers at Cornell Univ., the Univ. of Maryland and the Univ. of Colorado, there are subtle linguistic clues that predict when a betrayal is coming. Humans are poor at noticing them, but computer analysis can detect them.
Univ. of Pennsylvania researchers have made strides toward a new method of gene sequencing a strand of DNA’s bases are read as they are threaded through a nanoscopic hole. In a new study, they have shown that this technique can also be applied to proteins as way to learn more about their structure.