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Graphene gets competition

July 9, 2015 1:15 pm | by Technical Univ. of Munich | Comments

Graphene, the only one atom thick carbon network, achieved overnight fame with the 2010 Nobel Prize. But now comes competition: Such layers can also be formed by black phosphorous. Chemists at the Technical Univ. Munich have now developed a semiconducting material in which individual phosphorus atoms are replaced by arsenic. In a collaborative effort, American colleagues have built the first field-effect transistors from the new material.

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Research shows genomics can match plant variety to climate stresses

July 9, 2015 12:50 pm | by Gregg Tammen, Kansas State Univ. | Comments

A new study led by a Kansas State Univ. geneticist has shown that genomic signatures of adaptation in crop plants can help predict how crop varieties respond to stress from their environments. It is the first study to document that these genomic signatures of adaptation can help identify plants that will do well under certain stresses, such drought or toxic soils.

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Super graphene helps boost chemotherapy treatment

July 9, 2015 12:20 pm | by Pernille Feilberg Langeland, Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology | Comments

Chemotherapy treatment usually involves the patient receiving medicine through an intravenous catheter. These catheters, as well as the equipment attached to them, are treated with a silver coating which is antibacterial, preventing bacterial growth and unwanted infections during a treatment. Researchers are now studying what happens when different drugs come in contact with this silver coating.

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Super-bright supernova with extreme burst of gamma radiation

July 9, 2015 11:50 am | by Univ. of Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Institute | Comments

Astronomers from the Niels Bohr Institute have observed a super-bright supernova association with a very unusual long lasting gamma-ray burst. Gamma-ray bursts are in rare cases observed in connection with supernovae, which are the deaths of massive stars and they usually only last a few minutes, but the new burst lasted more than half an hour. The supernova itself was extremely bright.

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Bone-like 3-D silicon synthesized for potential use with medical devices

July 9, 2015 11:15 am | by Univ. of Chicago | Comments

Researchers have developed a new approach for better integrating medical devices with biological systems. The researchers, led by Bozhi Tian, assistant professor in chemistry at the Univ. of Chicago, have developed the first skeleton-like silicon spicules ever prepared via chemical processes.

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New timeline links volcanic eruptions to centuries of cold temperature extremes

July 9, 2015 8:29 am | by Jim Shelton, Yale Univ. | Comments

A new study reorders the timing and reveals the climate impact of nearly 300 major volcanic eruptions worldwide, dating back to the early Roman period. The analysis resolves longstanding inconsistencies between historic atmospheric sulfate data taken from ice cores and corresponding temperature data derived from tree rings and other sources.

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Tamper-detecting seal is tough to fool

July 9, 2015 8:14 am | by Nancy Salem, Sandia National Laboratories | Comments

A critical area of security is ensuring that something inside a container stays there. Sandia National Laboratories has made the job easier with an innovative technology that detects signs of tampering. Sandia has a long history of research into tamper detection and continues to advance the field, providing technologies to the International Atomic Energy Agency and others.

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Sensitive and specific: A new way of probing electrolyte-electrode interfaces

July 9, 2015 7:34 am | by Rachel Berkowitz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Comments

One of the most important things to understand in battery technology is the precise physical and chemical processes that occur at the electrode/electrolyte interface. However, microscopic understanding of these processes is quite limited due to a lack of suitable probing techniques. Now, researchers have developed a new technique that enables sensitive and specific detection of molecules at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

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Searing sun seen in x-rays

July 9, 2015 7:25 am | by Ramanuj Basu, Caltech | Comments

X-rays light up the surface of our sun in a bouquet of colors in this new image containing data from NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR. The high-energy x-rays seen by NuSTAR are shown in blue, while green represents lower-energy x-rays from the X-ray Telescope instrument on the Hinode spacecraft, named after the Japanese word for sunrise.

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Hybrid cells cause chaos around cancers

July 9, 2015 7:15 am | by Mike Williams, Rice Univ. | Comments

Rice Univ. researchers have built a simulation to show how cancerous tumors manipulate blood-vessel growth for their own benefit. Like all cells, those in tumors need access to the body’s fine network of blood vessels to bring them oxygen and carry away waste. Tumors have learned to game the process called angiogenesis in which new vessels sprout from existing ones, like branches from a tree.

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Why do puddles stop spreading?

July 9, 2015 7:07 am | by David L. Chandler, MIT News Office | Comments

When you spill a bit of water onto a tabletop, the puddle spreads—and then stops, leaving a well-defined area of water with a sharp boundary. There’s just one problem: The formulas scientists use to describe such a fluid flow say that the water should just keep spreading endlessly. Everyone knows that’s not the case, but why? This mystery has now been solved by researchers at MIT.

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Study reveals new method to develop more efficient drugs

July 8, 2015 12:30 pm | by Allison Perry, Univ. of Kentucky | Comments

A new study led by Univ. of Kentucky researchers suggests a new approach to develop highly-potent drugs which could overcome current shortcomings of low drug efficacy and multi-drug resistance in the treatment of cancer as well as viral and bacterial infections.

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Peppermint oil, cinnamon could help treat chronic wounds

July 8, 2015 11:30 am | by American Chemical Society | Comments

Infectious colonies of bacteria called biofilms that develop on chronic wounds and medical devices can cause serious health problems and are tough to treat. But now scientists have found a way to package antimicrobial compounds from peppermint and cinnamon in tiny capsules that can both kill biofilms and actively promote healing.

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Integrating biofuels and food crops on farms

July 8, 2015 10:32 am | by Payal Marathe, Argonne National Laboratory | Comments

We ask a lot of the land: feed the world with crops, power the world with bioenergy, retain nutrients so they don’t pollute our water and air. To help landscapes answer these high demands, scientists from the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory are designing ways to improve and optimize land use.

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Ultra-thin, all-inorganic molecular nanowires successfully compounded

July 8, 2015 10:19 am | by Hiroshima Univ. | Comments

Nanowires are wired-shaped materials with diameters that are tens of nanometers or less. There are many types of nanowires, including semiconducting composite nanowires, metal oxide composite nanowires and organic polymer nanowires, and they are typically used in functional materials and devices used as sensors, transistors, semiconductors, photonics devices and solar cells.

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