Earlier this year, physicists working at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, determined the ionization potential for astatine, a naturally occurring element so rare that, until now, its ionization potential couldn’t be determined. All told, less than a tenth of a gram exists on Earth, which led researchers to create artificial astatine in the laboratory, then test it later using laser spectroscopy.
Today’s digital designs are evolving in a variety of ways, prompting new approaches to design, simulation, measurement and debug. One change is the use of more serial buses. Another is the use of system-on-a-chip (SOC) integrated circuits or advanced field-programmable gate arrays with SOC capability. Despite this evolution, there's still a role for classic parallel buses in many designs and the need to measure those buses.
Over the past decade, significant changes have been underway among users of electronic test and measurement instrumentation. For example, electronics companies’ R&D staffs have shrunk, and engineers report they are under pressure to do more with fewer resources than in the past. At the same time, there are fewer engineers dedicated to test with in-depth test and measurement training and background.
Quality control departments across various industries perform viscosity measurement tests on a broad range of fluids and semi-solid materials for pass/fail determination. Some laboratories run hundreds of tests per day and represent the extreme for sample volume throughput.
The space program in the mid-20th century accelerated the switch from analog to digital systems for high-speed data acquisition and monitoring. But systems recording today’s physical and electrical phenomena must meet a new set of data acquisition and logging challenges, making them unrecognizable to those early computer pioneers.
Intrinsic fluorescence is a powerful indicator of protein structure and function. The amount of fluorescence can often give the researcher insight into the protein’s conformational states or activity under different biological conditions including changes in temperature, pH and ion concentration.
The power of multispectral imaging is already leveraged in a wide variety of research applications. Multispectral images are data-rich, revealing things beyond our human vision by combining ultraviolet fluorescence, narrow-band color and penetrating near-infrared images. However, until recently, there has not been a feasible way to scale this technology for production-volume portable devices.
The U.S. has led the world in all aspects of R&D for more than 50 years due to combined large industrial and government research spending and investments. That overwhelming advantage has been slipping over the past few years as growth in Asian R&D investments continue to exceed those in the U.S., often a factor of ten or more (growth rates, not actual spending).
One of the major driving forces for developing new sensors and detectors is in medical applications. This includes the integration of fiber optic sensors, smart sensors, silicon micromachined sensors and thin-film devices. Smart sensors are devices that incorporate electronic logic, control or signal processing functions and therefore offer enhanced measurement capabilities, information quality and functional performance.
Today, more than ever, the pharmaceutical, biotech and generic drug businesses are challenged to improve product quality, productivity, return on investments and compliance, while simultaneously producing growth for stakeholders. These challenges will grow over the next few years as major marketed pharmaceutical products lose patent protection and companies struggle with anemic research pipelines.
Cell biologists need high-resolution 3-D imaging to understand the structure-function relationships of organelles and other structures in cells, and the connectivity and organization of cells in tissues. Many of these structures are too small to be seen clearly in a light microscope and require the higher resolving power of an electron microscope.
The human cell represents the smallest functional unit of life. All tissues in the body are composed of multiple cell types, typically arranged in a 3-D architecture that is relevant to the functions they carry out. Since cells were first isolated and grown in the laboratory environment, biologists and engineers have pursued the utilization of these tiny building blocks in the reconstruction and regeneration of functional tissue.
Discounting its size and population, Singapore is one of world’s most productive and technologically advanced countries. For years, the small island nation has been emblematic of the growth of research, innovation, and enterprise in South Asia. Already home to several highly rated research universities, Singapore, in the last decade, has sought opportunities to bolster its capabilities by organizing a truly international research facility.
The Georgia Institute of Technology Carbon-Neutral Energy Solutions Laboratory began as a flexible, design-build, high-bay laboratory. Located across railroad tracks on Georgia Tech’s North Avenue Research Area Science Park site, it was a shop-like laboratory; flexible enough for use, even without a defined user.
Following Harvard University’s creation of the Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology Department, a new home was sought; ultimately resulting in the rebirth of the. The building was considered groundbreaking at its completion in 1981, known as one of the world's first biochemistry buildings. However, 30 years later, it desperately needed renovating to meet the department's growing needs.