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New options for spintronic devices

May 18, 2015 10:46 am | by Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin | Comments

Scientists from Paris and Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin have been able to switch ferromagnetic domains on and off with low voltage in a structure made of two different ferroic materials. The switching works slightly above room temperature. Their results, which are published online in Scientific Reports, might inspire future applications in low-power spintronics, for instance for fast and efficient data storage.

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New cost-effective, sustainable chemical catalysts

May 18, 2015 10:26 am | by Jim Shelton, Yale Univ. | Comments

Yale Univ. chemists have helped develop a family of new chemical catalysts that are expected to lower the cost and boost the sustainability of the production of chemical compounds used by a number of industries. The new catalysts are based on palladium, a rare and expensive metal. Palladium catalysts are used to form an array of chemical compounds in pharmaceuticals, plastics, agrochemicals and many other industries.

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New link between ocean microbes, atmosphere uncovered

May 18, 2015 8:07 am | by American Chemical Society | Comments

Few things are more refreshing than the kiss of sea spray on your face. You may not realize it, but that cool, moist air influences our climate by affecting how clouds are formed and how sunlight is scattered over the oceans. In ACS Central Science, researchers demonstrate that microbes in seawater can control the chemistry of sea spray ejected into the atmosphere.

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Wearables may get boost from boron-infused graphene

May 18, 2015 7:51 am | by Mike Williams, Rice Univ. | Comments

A microsupercapacitor designed by scientists at Rice Univ. that may find its way into personal and even wearable electronics is getting an upgrade. The laser-induced graphene device benefits greatly when boron becomes part of the mix. The Rice lab of chemist James Tour uses commercial lasers to create thin, flexible supercapacitors by burning patterns into common polymers.

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Solving streptide from structure to biosynthesis

May 18, 2015 7:31 am | by Princeton Univ. | Comments

Bacteria speak to one another using peptide signals in a soundless language known as quorum sensing. In a step towards translating bacterial communications, researchers at Princeton Univ. have revealed the structure and biosynthesis of streptide, a peptide involved in the quorum sensing system common to many streptococci.

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Nanosponge-filled gel cleans up MRSA infections

May 18, 2015 7:23 am | by Univ. of California, San Diego | Comments

Nanoengineers at the Univ. of California, San Diego developed a gel filled with toxin-absorbing nanosponges that could lead to an effective treatment for skin and wound infections caused by MRSA, an antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This "nanosponge-hydrogel" minimized the growth of skin lesions on mice infected with MRSA, without the use of antibiotics.

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Stem cell "Wild West" takes root amid lack of U.S. regulation

May 18, 2015 2:04 am | by Matthew Perrone, AP Health Writer, Associated Press | Comments

The liquid is dark red, a mixture of fat and blood, and Dr. Mark Berman pumps it out of the patient's backside. He treats it with a chemical, runs it through a processor and injects it into the woman's aching knees and elbows. The "soup," he says, is rich in shape-shifting stem cells: magic bullets that, according to some doctors, can be used to treat everything from Parkinson's disease to asthma to this patient's chronic osteoarthritis.

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The measured plasma pressure profile and the particle dynamics relating to the loss of axial momentum loss.

Towards high performance electrodeless electric propulsion in space

May 15, 2015 12:07 pm | by Tohoku University | Comments

A part of the performance degradation mechanism of the advanced, electrodeless, helicon plasma thruster with a magnetic nozzle, has been revealed. An electric propulsion device is a main engine, and a key piece of technology for space development and exploration. Charged particles are produced by electric discharge and accelerated. Thrust force is equivalent to the momentum exhausted by the device, and spacecraft can thus be propelled.

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Researchers used state of the art UV cameras and electron microscopes to analyze the eruptive plumes and ash generated by Volcán de Colima in Mexico

Study attributes varying explosivity to gaseous state within volcanoes

May 15, 2015 12:01 pm | by Alan Williams, Plymouth University | Comments

The varying scale and force of certain volcanic eruptions are directly influenced by the distribution of gases within magma inside a volcano’s conduit, according to a new study. Using state-of-the-art equipment, including UV cameras and electron microscopes, researchers led a project to analyze the eruptive plumes and ash generated by Volcán de Colima, the most active volcano in the Americas.

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A high harmonic spectrometer © ETH Zurich

Physicists observe attosecond real-time restructuring of electron cloud in molecule

May 15, 2015 11:52 am | by Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology | Comments

The recombination of electron shells in molecules, taking just a few dozen attoseconds, can now be viewed “live,” thanks to a new method. To track processes taking virtually no time to happen, scientists used the pump-probe method. First, a molecule was impulsively oriented with one laser pulse. Then a second powerful, low-frequency laser pulse ionized the molecule, which generated high harmonic radiation.

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Scientists have made an important step towards understanding how volcanic eruptions happen, after identifying a previously unrecognized potential trigger. An international team of researchers from the University of Liverpool, Monash University and the Uni

New trigger for volcanic eruptions discovered using jelly and lasers

May 15, 2015 11:46 am | by University of Liverpool | Comments

Scientists have made an important step towards understanding how volcanic eruptions happen, after identifying a previously unrecognized potential trigger. An international team of researchers from the University of Liverpool, Monash University and the University of Newcastle (Australia) think their findings could lead to new ways of interpreting signs of volcanic unrest measured by satellites and surface observations.

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Brookhaven Lab scientist Kevin Yager (left) and postdoctoral researcher Pawel Majewski with the new Laser Zone Annealing instrument at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials.

Intense lasers cook up complex, self-assembled nanomaterials 1,000 times faster

May 15, 2015 11:38 am | by Brookhaven National Laboratory | Comments

Nanoscale materials feature extraordinary, billionth-of-a-meter qualities that transform everything from energy generation to data storage. But while a nanostructured solar cell may be fantastically efficient, that precision is notoriously difficult to achieve on industrial scales. The solution may be self-assembly, or training molecules to stitch themselves together into high-performing configurations.

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Samantha Joye, a professor of marine sciences in the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, studies the oil plumes generated by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout.

Further assessment needed of dispersants used in response to oil spills

May 15, 2015 11:28 am | by Alan Flurry, University of Georgia | Comments

New commentary argues for further in-depth assessments of the impacts of dispersants on microorganisms to guide their use in response to future oil spills. After the Deepwater Horizon spill, dispersants were used as a first line of defense, even though little is known about how they affect microbial communities or the biodegradation activities they are intended to spur.

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Researchers have developed a novel device that may allow individuals to feel hot, cold and the sense of touch through a prosthetic device.

Device may allow sensations in prosthetic hands

May 15, 2015 11:21 am | by Beth Miller, Washington University in St. Louis | Comments

To the nearly 2 million people in the United States living with the loss of a limb, including U.S. military veterans, prosthetic devices provide restored mobility, yet lack sensory feedback. A team of engineers and researchers at Washington University in St. Louis is working to change that so those with upper limb prosthetics can feel hot and cold and the sense of touch through their prosthetic hands.

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Nano-transistor assesses your health via sweat

May 15, 2015 9:23 am | by EPFL | Comments

Made from state-of-the-art silicon transistors, an ultra-low power sensor enables real-time scanning of the contents of liquids, such as perspiration. Compatible with advanced electronics, this technology boasts exceptional accuracy – enough to manufacture mobile sensors that monitor health.

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