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Chemists demonstrate “bricks-and-mortar” assembly of new molecular structures

July 31, 2014 | Comments

Scientists in Indiana have recently described the self-assembly of large, symmetrical molecules in “bricks-and-mortar” fashion. While researchers have created many such large, cyclic molecules, or macrocycles, what these chemists have built is a cyanostar, a five-sided molecule that is unusual in that it can be readily synthesized in a "one pot" process. It also has an unprecedented ability to bind with large, negatively charged anions.

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Thomson Reuters launch new analytics platform, InCites

July 31, 2014 11:55 am | Comments

An integrated, web-based platform for measuring research output and impact, monitoring trends and benchmarking, InCites is Thomson Reuters’ latest effort to allow users to easily assess and look beyond the global influence of a specific journal to conduct transparent analysis and make better decisions. The expanded assessment solution has been implemented on the 2014 edition of Journal Citation Reports.

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Scientists develop new way to separate birdsong sources

July 31, 2014 10:08 am | Comments

A team of U.S. and Chinese scientists have published a new study that could greatly improve current methods of localizing birdsong data. Their findings, which ascertain the validity of using statistical algorithms to detect multiple-source signals in real time and in three-dimensional space, are of especial significance to modern warfare.

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Breakthrough in understanding of important blood protein

July 31, 2014 10:07 am | Comments

The human body contains a unique protein that has the unusual property of destroying itself after a few hours of existence. Called PAI-1, it affects many physiological functions, including the dissolving of coagulated blood. Recent research in Denmark has shed light on how PAI-1 changes shape. This is considered important because the protein has one of the largest shape changes in the known world of proteins.

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Ames Lab home to first-in-nation DNP-NMR instrument

July 31, 2014 9:51 am | by Breehan Gerleman Lucchesi, Communications Specialist, Ames Laboratory | Comments

Ames Laboratory is now the home to a dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer that helps scientists understand how individual atoms are arranged in materials. Ames Laboratory’s DNP-NMR is the first to be used for materials science and chemistry in the U.S.

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Glucose “control switch” in the brain key to both diabetes types

July 31, 2014 9:36 am | by Karen N. Peart, Yale Univ. | Comments

Researchers at Yale School of Medicine have pinpointed a mechanism in part of the brain that is key to sensing glucose levels in the blood, linking it to both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The findings are published in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences.

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Toward a home test for detecting potentially dangerous levels of caffeine

July 31, 2014 8:37 am | by American Chemical Society | Comments

The shocking news of an Ohio teen who died of a caffeine overdose in May highlighted the potential dangers of the normally well-tolerated and mass-consumed substance. To help prevent serious health problems that can arise from consuming too much caffeine, scientists are reporting progress toward a rapid, at-home test to detect even low levels of the stimulant in most beverages and even breast milk.

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Engineering a protein to prevent brain damage from toxic agents

July 31, 2014 8:28 am | Comments

Research at New York Univ. is paving the way for a breakthrough that may prevent brain damage in civilians and military troops exposed to poisonous chemicals—particularly those in pesticides and chemical weapons. An article in ChemBioChem outlines the advancement in detoxifying organophosphates, which are compounds commonly used in pesticides and warfare agents.

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Researchers find protein that fuels repair of treatment-resistant cancer cells

July 31, 2014 8:06 am | by Laura Bailey, Univ. of Michigan | Comments

Imagine you're fighting for your life but no matter how hard you hit, your opponent won't go down. The same can be said of highly treatment-resistant cancers, such as head and neck cancer, where during radiation and chemotherapy some cancer cells repair themselves, survive and thrive. Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, but the late detection and treatment resistance result in a high mortality rate.

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Decades-old amber collection offers new views of an ancient world

July 31, 2014 7:52 am | by Diana Yates, Life Sciences Editor Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | Comments

Scientists are searching through a massive collection of 20-million-year-old amber found in the Dominican Republic more than 50 years ago, and the effort is yielding fresh insights into ancient tropical insects and the world they inhabited. When the collection is fully curated, a task that will take many years, it will be the largest unbiased Dominican amber collection in the world, the researchers report.

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Boosting neural pathway from gut to brain could play part in weight control

July 31, 2014 7:40 am | by Amy Patterson Neubert, Purdue Univ. | Comments

A Purdue Univ. study found an increase in sensory nerve fibers that send signals from the gut to the brain reduces the time spent eating a meal, which could help regulate body weight. The researchers studied a mouse model with a targeted knockout of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene that decreases levels of this nerve growth factor in the gastrointestinal tract.

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Panasonic, Tesla to build big U.S. battery plant

July 31, 2014 4:23 am | by The Associated Press | Comments

American electric car maker Tesla Motors Inc. is teaming up with Japanese electronics company Panasonic Corp. to build a battery manufacturing plant in the U.S. expected to create 6,500 jobs. The companies announced the deal Thursday, but they did not say where in the U.S. the so-called "gigafactory," or large-scale plant, will be built.

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Biologists describe mechanism promoting multiple DNA mutations

July 30, 2014 4:49 pm | by Gart Galluzzo, Univ. of Iowa | Comments

DNA mutations had been thought to be rare events that occur randomly throughout the genome. However, recent studies have shown that cancer development frequently involves the formation of multiple mutations that arise simultaneously and in close proximity to each other. These groups of clustered mutations are frequently found in regions where chromosomal rearrangements take place.

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Study: Tumors absorb sugar for mobility

July 30, 2014 4:46 pm | by Lionel Pousaz, EPFL | Comments

We have long known that cancer cells monopolize large amounts of sugar. More recently, it became clear that some tumor cells are also characterized by a series of features such as mobility or unlikeliness to join in an ordered set. Researchers are calling this behavior “mesenchymal,” and they suspect it promotes metastasis.

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Nature inspires a greener way to make colorful plastics

July 30, 2014 2:00 pm | Comments

Long before humans figured out how to create colors, nature had already perfected the process. Now scientists are tapping into those secrets to develop a more environmentally friendly way to make colored plastics. Their paper on using structure—or the shapes and architectures of materials—rather than dyes, to produce color appears in Nano Letters.

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Dissolvable fabric loaded with medicine might offer protection against HIV

July 30, 2014 1:54 pm | by Michelle Ma, Univ. of Washington | Comments

Soon, protection from HIV infection could be as simple as inserting a medicated, disappearing fabric minutes before having sex. Univ. of Washington bioengineers have discovered a potentially faster way to deliver a topical drug that protects women from contracting HIV. Their method spins the drug into silk-like fibers that quickly dissolve when in contact with moisture, releasing high doses of the drug.

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