Bacteria are best known as free-living single cells, but in reality their lives are much more complex. To survive in harsh environments, many species of bacteria will band together and form a biofilm. A familiar biofilm is the dental plaque that forms on teeth between brushings, but biofilms can form almost anywhere given the right conditions.
Faculty at Louisiana Tech Univ. have discovered, for the first time, a new nanocomposite formed by the self-assembly of copper and a biological component that occurs under physiological conditions, which are similar to those found in the human body and could be used in targeted drug delivery for fighting diseases such as cancer.
Cancer researchers are constantly in search of more-effective and less-toxic approaches to stopping the disease, and have recently launched clinical trials testing a new class of drugs called BET inhibitors. These therapies act on a group of proteins that help regulate the expression of many genes, some of which play a role in cancer.
Invading microbial pathogens must scavenge essential nutrients from their host organism in order to survive and replicate. To defend themselves from infection, hosts attempt to block pathogens’ access to these nutrients. Now researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology have discovered the vital role a protein, calprotectin, plays in this process, known as “nutritional immunity."
A team of physicists at the Univ. of Toronto (U of T) have taken a step toward making the essential building block of quantum computers out of pure light. Their advance, described in a paper published in Nature Physics, has to do with a specific part of computer circuitry known as a "logic gate."
Using a succession of biological mechanisms, Sandia National Laboratories researchers have created linkages of polymer nanotubes that resemble the structure of a nerve, with many out-thrust filaments poised to gather or send electrical impulses.
In July, scientists at the Large Hadron Collider reported the discovery of the pentaquark, a long-sought particle first predicted to exist in the 1960s as a consequence of the theory of elementary particles and their interactions proposed by Murray Gell-Mann, Caltech's Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Theoretical Physics, Emeritus.
New software developed by Rice Univ. bioengineers could speed up the diagnosis of breast cancer with 90% accuracy and without the need for a specialist, according to research published in Breast Cancer Research. Researchers said the software could improve breast cancer management, particularly in developing countries where pathologists are not routinely available.
In a computer operating system, the file system is the part that writes data to disk and tracks where the data is stored. If the computer crashes while it’s writing data, the file system’s records can become corrupt. Hours of work could be lost, or programs could stop working properly.
A Univ. of Manchester scientist is part of a team which has carried out one of the biggest ever analyses of genomes on life of all forms. This has allowed them to map the evolutionary history of eukaryotic genes in unprecedented detail, giving insight into the mechanisms of evolution in the very earliest forms of life.
A team of scientists at Kyoto Univ.'s Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) has developed a novel technique using tiny gold rods to target pain receptors. Gold nanorods are tiny rods that are 1 to 100 nm wide and long. In comparison, a human hair is 100,000 nm wide. The team coated gold nanorods with a special type of protein that transports fat within the body known as a lipoprotein.
Since its discovery, graphene has captured the attention of scientists and engineers for its many extraordinary properties. But graphene oxide, an oxidized derivative of graphene, largely has been viewed as graphene’s inferior cousin. Now a Northwestern Univ. team has found that graphene oxide’s seemingly undesirable defects surprisingly give rise to exciting mechanical properties.
By minimizing the acceleration of industrial robots, energy consumption can be reduced by up to 40%, while retaining the given production time. This is the result of a new optimization algorithm that was developed by researchers at Chalmers Univ. of Technology. Optimization of the robot's movements reduces acceleration and deceleration, as well as the time the robot is at a standstill since being at a standstill also consumes energy.
From the spinning disc of a computer’s hard drive to the varying current in a transformer, many technological devices work by merging electricity and magnetism. But the search to find a single material that combines both electric polarizations and magnetizations remains challenging.
Researchers at the Univ. of Strathclyde are developing groundbreaking plasma based light amplifiers that could replace traditional high-power laser amplifiers. The research group at the Glasgow-based university are leading efforts to take advantage of plasma, the ubiquitous medium that makes up most of the universe, to make the significant scientific breakthrough.