The National Institutes of Health (NIH) will be the primary recipient of the funding to foster more medical research.
Superficially, Kalligrammatid lacewings (Oregramma illecebrosa) resembled the modern-day butterfly. As they flitted about the Eurasian environment, they sucked up sugary pollen droplets with their proboscises. But these insects are separated from modern butterflies by some 50 million years.
Found idling near deep-sea hypothermal vents and whale carcasses, the creatures look more like elongated and deflated hot water balloons than worms. For decades, scientists sought to understand the genus Xenoturbella. A single species found off the coast of Sweden in 1950 started the scientific journey. With one body opening — a mouth — and no brain, gills, eyes, kidneys, or anus, the creatures appear primordial.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has recommended the FDA consider clinically investigating viability of mitochondrial replacement techniques, which attempt to transfer DNA from healthy human eggs to diseased embryos. In other words, hypothetical children born via this therapy would have three parents, with their nuclear DNA stemming from one male and one female, and the mitochondrial DNA from another woman.
Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy are not likely to be signals of dark matter, but rather other astrophysical phenomena, such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands.
An international group of physicists led by the University of Arkansas has created an artificial material with a structure comparable to graphene. “We’ve basically created the first artificial graphene-like structure with transition metal atoms in place of carbon atoms,” said Jak Chakhalian. “This discovery gives us the ability to create graphene-like structures for many other elements,” said Srimanta Middey.
Phosphine is one of the newest materials to be named a superconductor, a material through which electricity can flow with zero resistance. In 2015, scientists reported that they had liquefied the chemical and squeezed it under high pressure in a diamond vise to achieve superconductivity. Now, a different group of researchers is providing insight into what may have happened to the phosphine as it underwent this intense compression.
Engineers found a way to keep a cancerous tumor from growing by using nanoparticles of the main ingredient in common antacid tablets. They used two novel methods to create nanoparticles from calcium carbonate that were injected intravenously into a mouse model to treat solid tumors. The compound changed the pH of the tumor environment, from acidic to more alkaline, and kept the cancer from growing.
At the atomic level, bismuth displays a number of quirky physical phenomena. A new study reveals a novel mechanism for controlling the energy transfer between electrons and the bismuth crystal lattice. Mastering this effect could, ultimately, help convert waste heat back into electricity, for example to improve the overall efficiency of solar cells.
Of all of Saturn’s rings, the B-ring is the most opaque and most massive. In fact, it’s the most opaque ring in the solar system, according to NASA. But it’s not well understood. Researchers reported their results from “weighing” the B-ring’s opaque center for the first time. They achieved the feat by analyzing the ring’s spiral density waves, which are created by the gravitational forces from both Saturn’s moons and the planet itself.
Despite advances in the field of volcanology, volcanoes are still unpredictable behemoths, capable of spurting forth magma and ash at a moment’s notice. But scientists from the University of Oxford, Durham University, and the Vesuvius Volcano Observatory are attempting to understand what makes a volcano tick, or, more aptly, erupt. To do that, they’re looking to the past.
A series of aerofoil-shaped panels downwind of an airport runway could break up the plumes of exhaust gases from departing aircraft, preventing those gases from staying near the ground and so dispersing them more quickly. A similar array could be used to prevent vehicle pollutants accumulating downwind of motorways, or even to disperse ground frosts over arable fields.
Thanks to a small screen on their skis, backcountry skiers can see various data recorded by sensors as they ski. The length and number of turns going up, their cadence and even the symmetry of their steps appear on the device. It was developed by an EPFL spin-off that teamed up with a local equipment manufacturer. The device, which attaches directly to the skis, is small and light and loaded with sensors.
Scientists in northeast Germany have flipped the switch on an experiment they hope will advance the quest for nuclear fusion, considered a clean and safe form of nuclear power. German Chancellor Angela Merkel, a physicist herself, pushed the button on February 3, 2016, to inject a tiny amount of hydrogen into the Wendelstein 7-X device at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics in Greifswald.
For the first time, scientists have entangled four photons in their orbital angular momentum. Leiden physicists sent a laser through a crystal, thereby creating four photons with coupled rotation. So far, this has only been done for two photons. The discovery makes uncrackable secret communication of complex information possible between multiple parties.