Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are commanding considerable research attention because of their appetite for greenhouse gases. But now supramolecular organic frameworks (SOFs), held together by non-covalent bonds, have joined the field. Researchers have unveiled the first 2-D SOFs that self-assemble in solution, an important breakthrough that holds implications for sensing, separation technologies, and biomimetics.
Until recently, the microscopic study of complex...
Ribbons of ultrathin graphene combined with...
Medical diagnostics seeks to learn early on...
Researchers at Purdue Univ. have successfully tested the conversion of large particles of pinewood char in a gasification process, a step necessary for the mass production of synthetic liquid fuel from recalcitrant biomass. The resultsstemmed from a series of experiments using a new facility at Purdue's Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories aimed at learning precisely how biomass is broken down in reactors called gasifiers.
The sound vibrations that make up music can make solar panels work harder, according to new research, and pop music performs better than classical. Scientists showed that high pitched sounds like those common in pop and rock music caused the greatest improvement in the solar cells' power output, increasing it by up to 40%.
Halomonas are a hardy breed of bacteria. They can withstand heat, high salinity, low oxygen, utter darkness and pressures that would kill most other organisms. These traits enable these microbes to eke out a living in deep sandstone formations that also happen to be useful for hydrocarbon extraction and carbon sequestration, researchers report in a new study.
Easily manufactured, low-cost artificial cells manufactured using microprinting may one day serve as drug and gene delivery devices, according to engineers at Penn State Univ. who are creating large arrays of artificial cells. Made of lipids and proteins, these uniformly sized cells can either remain attached to the substrate on which they grow, or become separated and used as freely moving vessels.
Quantum dots have potential for applications that make use of their ability to absorb or emit light and/or electric charges. Examples include more vividly colored light-emitting diodes (LEDs), photovoltaic solar cells, nanoscale transistors and biosensors. But because these applications have differing, sometimes opposite, requirements, finding ways to control the dots’ optical and electronic properties is crucial to their success.
Modern epoxies are frequently made stronger, lighter and more resilient with the addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), a special form of carbon that under a microscope looks like rolls of chicken wire. Few analytical methods have been employed, however, to determine the effect this material has on environmental or health safety. NIST has developed a suite of tests for evaluating the performance of these nanocomposite materials.
Supramolecular chemistry is just beginning to come into its own with the emergence of nanotechnology. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are commanding much of the attention because of their appetite for greenhouse gases, but a new player has joined the field—supramolecular organic frameworks (SOFs). Researchers have unveiled the first 2-D SOFs that self-assemble in solution.
The Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology in Korea has developed a new method for the mass production of boron/nitrogen co-doped graphene nanoplatelets, which could lead to the fabrication of a graphene-based field-effect transistor with semiconducting nature. This opens up opportunities for practical use in electronic devices.
A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory team has recently produced some of the highest energy betatron x-rays ever demonstrated, with the added benefit of being produced on a system the size of a large tabletop. Betatron x-ray radiation, produced when relativistic electrons are accelerated and oscillate in a laser-driven plasma channel, is an x-ray source holding great promise for future high-energy-density science experiments.
A new device transforms almost any bicycle into an electric-hybrid vehicle using an app on a smartphone. The device, called the Copenhagen Wheel, is is equipped with wireless connectivity to track travel and installed as part of a rear hub of a bike wheel. Packed with a proprietary computer, batteries, and sensors that monitor how hard a rider is pedaling, it activates an onboard motor whenever support is needed.
Tests at two wastewater treatment plants in northern China revealed antibiotic-resistant bacteria were not only escaping purification but also breeding and spreading their dangerous cargo. Scientists found “superbugs” carrying New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1), a multidrug-resistant gene first identified in India in 2010, in wastewater disinfected by chlorination.
Lithium-ion batteries could have significantly higher energy density if their graphite anodes were to be replaced by lithium metal anodes. Hampering this change, however, has been the persistent growth of dendrites that eventually short-circuit the battery. Researchers have recently discovered that the bulk of dendrite material lies below the surface of the lithium electrode, underneath the electrode/electrolyte interface.
Researchers are developing computers capable of "approximate computing" to perform calculations good enough for certain tasks that don't require perfect accuracy, potentially doubling efficiency and reducing energy consumption. Purdue researchers have developed a range of hardware techniques to demonstrate approximate computing, showing a potential for improvements in energy efficiency.
Engineers have created a continuous chemical process that produces useful crude oil minutes after they pour in harvested algae—a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The research by engineers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was reported in Algal Research. A biofuels company, Utah-based Genifuel Corp., has licensed the technology and is working with an industrial partner to build a pilot plant using the technology.
A dozen research papers in a recent special issue of the journal Climate Change are devoted to the topic of geoengineering. They include the most detailed description yet of the proposed Oxford Principles to govern geoengineering research, as well as surveys on the technical hurdles, ethics and regulatory issues related to deliberately manipulating the planet’s climate.